research methods ; observational design

STRUCTURED + UNSTRUCTURED
DGDFG
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what is it called when researcher wants to write down everything they see?
unstructured observation
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which tends to produce accounts rich in?
detail (the stasi are quacking)
3 of 53
method appropriate in what kind obs?
small scale / few pps
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however why may this not be practical sometimes?
too much going on for resarcher to reord
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therefore neccessary to do what?
simplify target behaviours that will become main focus
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so if aggression sepcific acts like slaps observed does what?
makes up target behaviour clearly defined
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structured observations allow researcher to quantify obs using/
pre-determined list of behaviour / sampling methods
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UN/STRUCTURED ; EVAL VS
DFFG
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structured obs w/ behavioural categories make recording data?
easier / systematic
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data produced likely to be?
quantitative
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meaning what's more straightfwd?
comparing behvaiour between pps
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in contrast unstructured producewhat kind of data?
qualitative
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making more difficult to?
record / analuse
14 of 53
unstructured tho benefit from?
depth of detail
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greater risk of what tho?
observer bias
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due to lack of?
objective behavioural categories
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researcher may only record what kind of behaviours?
those that 'catch their eye'
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and these may not even be?
important / useful
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BEHAVIOURAL CATEGORIES
DDFG
20 of 53
necessary to break up target behaviour into behavioural categories to produce?
structured record of what researcher sees / hears
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target behaviours studied should be?
precisely defined / observable / measurable
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why would 'being loving' with its need for inferences rather than 'kissing' observable be an unreliable category?
two observers might interpret it differently
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before observation begins researcher should ensure as far as possible they have?
included all ways in which target behaviour may ccur in checklist
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BEHAVIOURAL CATEGORIES ; EVAL
DGDG
25 of 53
makes data collection more?
structured / objective
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must be which 3 things?
observable / measurable / self-evident
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researchers should also ensure what included on checklist?
all possible froms target behavioir
28 of 53
should be no 'dustbin category' for what?
many different behaviours to be deposited
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finally, categories should be exclusive and never?
overlap
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SAMPLING METHODS
DFGD
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what type of recording is key feature of unstructured?
continuous recording
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for what kinds of behaviours would this not be practical?
v complex
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in structured obs researcher must do what?
use systemati way of sampling
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- event sampling
dfgdf
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what is event sampling?
counting no. times particular behaviour occurs
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- time sampling
dfgdf
37 of 53
what is time sampling?
recording behaviour within pre-established time frame e.g checking what target doing every 30s
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SAMPLING METHODS ; EVAL
DFGDF
39 of 53
event sampling useful when?
when target behaviour / event is infrequent
40 of 53
why?
could be missed if time sampling was used
41 of 53
but what could happen if event too complex?
observer may overlook important details with event sampling
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sime sampling is effective in reducing?
no. obs that have to be made
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but what is bad about only certain times?
they may be unrepresentative of observation as a whole
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INTER OBSERVER RELIABILITY
DDFG
45 of 53
why recommended researchers don't conduct observational studies alone?
single observers may miss important details / only notice events that confirm hypothesis
46 of 53
what does this introduce to research process?
bias
47 of 53
what is vital between the two observers?
consistent in judgements and any data they record is same
48 of 53
therefore observers must be trained to est?
inter-observer reliability
49 of 53
obserbers should familiarise selves with?
behavioural categories to be used
50 of 53
observe same behaviour @ same time perhaps as part of/
pilot study
51 of 53
observers should compare data and discuss?
differences / interpretations
52 of 53
finally analyse data and inter observer reliability calculated by?
correlating each pair obs and made overall figure
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Card 2

Front

what is it called when researcher wants to write down everything they see?

Back

unstructured observation

Card 3

Front

which tends to produce accounts rich in?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

method appropriate in what kind obs?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

however why may this not be practical sometimes?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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