Research Methods- LT8 Sampling techniques

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What are four reasons why sociologists sample?
-To save time, -To save money, -For geographical inconvenience, -Impractical to survey everybody in a target population,
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What are the two types of sampling sociologists can undertake?
-Random -Non-random
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What is the definition of random sampling?
Employing a technique to ensure that everyone in the target popualtuion has an equal chance of being selected,
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How can random sampling be achieved?
It can be achieved by picking names out of a hat or through a computer,
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For advantages of random sampling, what is an advantage based on time?
It relatively easy and quick to carry out,
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What is another advantage based on chance?
Ensures people all have an equal chance of being chosen,
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What is another advantage based on representativeness?
It is the most representative as it relies on statistical odds,
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What is a disadvantage based on a sampling frame?
Requires an accurate, up to date and complete sampling frame
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What is another disadvantage based on representativeness?
A large sample is needed to ensure it is representative,
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Why can random sampling be unrepresentative?
As, by chance, the sample could be all females,
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What is the definition of non random sampling?
Employing a technique to structure or engineer the selection or predetermined criteria,
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What are the four ways to undertake non-random sampling?
1) Quota, 2) Stratified, 3) Snowball 4) Convenience/ Opportunity,
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For quota, what does it involve?
Before the research is carried out the reseaecher decided how many respondents of a particular type are required,
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Once they decide participants (e.g. 10 females 10 males), what will they do?
They will go out and looks for the right number and once on quote is filled no more results will be gathered from that group,
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For advantages of quoata, what is an advantage based on controlling variables?
Allows the researcher to control the variables without having a sampling frame
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Give an example of how the researcher controls the variables?
The researcher knows how many people with particular characteristics to question,
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What is another advantage about time and cost and why?
It is quick and cheap, -As if someone refuses to answer questions, someone else will simply be asked with the same characteristics,
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What is a criticism based on chance?
It is not random as each person in the population doesn't have the same chance of nbeing asked,
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What is another criticism based on personal questions?
The researcher may have to ask a few personal questions to ascertain whether the respondent matches the criteria,
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How is stratified sampling under taken?
The sample is split into groups and people are selected randomly,
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What must the researcher ensure?
That the groups must be the same proportion as in the target populatuon studied,
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What is an advantage based on variables?
it allows the researcher to control the variables that are important to the research,
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What is another advantage based on representativeness?
It can also increase precision and is therefore likely to improve representativeness,
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What is a criticism based on time and complexity?
It is time consuming and complex to identify strata and sample various sub-groups of the target populatuion,
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What is another criticism based on practicallity and sample frame?
Often it is not practical as the sampling frame doesn't contain the information required to split the population into groups,
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For the snowball technique, how is this undertaken?
A non-representative technique that involves using personal contacts to build up a sample group e.g. 'friend telling friend'
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What is an advantage based on a frame?
No sampling frame is required,
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What is another advantage based on types of groups it allows researchers to study?
Can allow access to sensitive and secretive groups e.g. drug users,
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What is a criticism based on representativeness?
Not representative as people who are included are part of a netwoek of contacts,
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What is another criticism based on generalisation?
The researcher may run our of participants making it difficult to generalise,
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For convenience/ opportunity technique, how is it carried out?
A non-representative technique that involves selecting those who are conviently available to the researcher,
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What is an advantage based on time and cost?
It is quick, cheap and easy to carry out,
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What is another advantage about a frame?
No sampling frame is needed,
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What is a criticism based on representativeness?
It is not representative,
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What is another criticism based on bias?
The sample is biased as choice of person relies on the judgement of the researcher,
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Card 2

Front

What are the two types of sampling sociologists can undertake?

Back

-Random -Non-random

Card 3

Front

What is the definition of random sampling?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

How can random sampling be achieved?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

For advantages of random sampling, what is an advantage based on time?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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