Research Methods- LT4 Experiments

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What are the three types of experiments?
-Laboratory experiments, -Field experiments, -Comparative methods,
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What is a laboratory experiment?
A research technique where the researcher manipulates an independent variable and measures a dependent variable,
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What is the environment of the laboratory experiment?
It is a carefully controlled, artificial environment
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What are the names of the two groups used?
-Experimental group, -Control Group,
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What is the experimental group?
This is the group that is manipulated by the experimenter,
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What is the control group?
This group is not manipulated by the experimenter, but is a foundation to compare the experimental group to,
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Give an example laboratory study by who and what did he investigate?
-Philip Zimbardo, -Used a laboratory experiment to investigate the effect of prison on the behaviour of both the guards and prisoners,
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Who provides advantages for laboratory experiments?
Positivists
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For one advantage, why do laboratory experiments allow for control?
Allows for greater control over possible 'confouding variables'
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What do laboratory experiments allow the researcher to get rid of?
Other variables other than the IV and DV
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Therefore, what is the effect on the results?
They are highly reliable,
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FOr another advantage, what relationship can be created to make what?
-A cause and effect relationship can be established, -Allows predictions to be made,
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For another, what is an advantage of the method being standardised?
It means the method is easy to repeat and retest and so increases the reliability,
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For another advantage, why are laboratory experiments objective?
As the researcher remains detached, manipulating variables and recording results with no feelings of opinion or bias,
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What is another advantage based on events occuring naturally?
The researcher doesn't have to wait for events to occur naturally but can produce the situation they wish to study in the laboratory,
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Who criticises laboratory experiments?
Interpretivists
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For another criticism, why are laboratory experiments criticsed for creating what effect?
-Hawthorne effect, -Interpretivists claim the results of research in the laboratory may not reflect what actually happens in real life as people may be aware they are part of an experiment,
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For another criticism, why do Interpretivists criticise cause and effect explanations of laboratory experiment results?
As they claims humans act in terms of feelings, emotions, choices which affect their behaviour,
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What is another crticism based on the scale of lab experiments?
Lab experiments are often small scale which makes generalisations difficult to a wider population,
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What is the effect on the findings?
Not representative,
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What is another criticism about based on the inability to study and society?
Society doesn't lend itself to be studied in a laboratory,
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Give an example of what is impossible to be studied in a laboratory with educational achievement?
It is impossible to study the effect of marketisation policies on educational achievement in a lab,
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What is it difficult to identify or control?
All the variables that effect behaviour,
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What is another criticism based on ethical problems?
There are often very real ethical problems associated with this technique. Especially regarding informed consent and deception
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What is the definition of a field experiment?
A field experiment is a study in which researchers manipulate an independent and measure a dependent variable,
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What is the environment?
Natural environment,
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Give an example study about exam achievement?
Rosenthal and Jacobson- Manipulated teacher expectations about pupil abilities to discover the effects of labelling on exam acheivement
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For an advantage of field experiments, why are field experiments more valid than lab experiments?
As the experiment is done in the real world and so in this sense is not 'false',
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What is another advantage based on what effect?
No Hawthorne Effect- Participant behaviour is more natural, and in some field experiments, they don't know they are being researched
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What is another advantage based on why the method is standardised and the effect on the findings?
The method is standardised and easy to repeat and retest, -High in relability,
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What is a criticism of field experiments based on variables?
There is less control over the variables in the field,
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What is the effect on the findings?
It affects the reliability,
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What is another ethical criticism?
There are ethical problems such as deception, a lack of informed consent and protection from harm,
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For comparative method, what is it?
It is a 'though experiment' which doesn't involve experimenting on real people but making comparisons between individuals, groups or societies and through time,
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Where the data used mainly come from?
Official statistics,
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For advantages of the comparative method, what does it avoid creating?
It avoids creating artificial research situations as with lab experiments
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What is another advantage based on establishing what relationships?
It is useful for establishing cause and effect relationships,
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What two things can cause and effect relationships create?
-Creates predictions, -Creates laws of human behaviour,
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What is a practical advantage based on studying what events?
It can be used to study past events unlike lab experiments
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What is an ethical advantage of the comparative method?
The comparative method poses no ethical problems so no harm or deception,
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However, what is a theoretical criticism based on control?
There is a lack of control over variables- can't be sure of cause and effect,
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What is another practical criticism based on comparisons?
Difficult to make comparisons between countries as data is often collected in different ways,
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What is a laboratory experiment?

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A research technique where the researcher manipulates an independent variable and measures a dependent variable,

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What is the environment of the laboratory experiment?

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Card 4

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What are the names of the two groups used?

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What is the experimental group?

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