Research Methods Key Words

Research methods
The processes by which information or data is collected usually for the purpose of testing a hypothesis and/or a theory.
1 of 41
Correlation
A mathematical technique in which a researcher investigates an association between two variables, called co-variables.
2 of 41
Correlation co-efficient
A number between -1 and +1 that represents the direction and strength of a relationship between co-variables.
3 of 41
Case Studies
An in-depth investigation, description and analysis of a single individual, group, institution or event.
4 of 41
Content analysis
A research technique that enables the indirect study of behaviour by examining communications that people produce, for example, in texts, emails, TV, film and other media.
5 of 41
Coding
The stage of a content analysis in which the communication to be studied is analysed by identifying each instance of the chosen categories (which may be words, sentences, phrases, etc).
6 of 41
Thematic analysis
An inductive and qualitative approach to analysis that involves identifying implicit or explicit ideas within the data. Themes will often emerge once the data has been coded.
7 of 41
Reliability
Refers to how consistent the findings from an investigation or measuring device are. A measuring device is said to be reliable if it produces consistent results every time it is used.
8 of 41
Test-retest reliability
A method of assessing the reliability of a questionnaire or psychological test by assessing the same person on two separate occasions. This shows to what extent the test (or other measure) produces the same answers ie is consistent or reliable.
9 of 41
Inter-observer reliability
The extent to which theres agreement between 2+ observers involved in observations of a behaviour. This is measured by correlating the observations of two or more observers. A general rule is that if (total number of agreements)/(total number of obse
10 of 41
Validity
The extent to which an observed effect is genuine – does it measure what it was supposed to measure, and can it be generalised beyond the research setting within which it was found?
11 of 41
Face validity
A basic form of validity in which a measure is scrutinised to determine whether it appears to measure what it is supposed to measure – for instance, does a test of anxiety look like it measures anxiety?
12 of 41
Concurrent validity
The extent to which a psychological measure relates to an existing similar measure.
13 of 41
Ecological validity
The extent to which findings from a research study can be generalised to other settings and situations. A form of external validity.
14 of 41
Temporal validity
The extent to which findings from a research study can be generalised to other historical times and eras. A form of external validity.
15 of 41
Statistical tests
Used in psychology to determine whether a significant difference or correlation exists (and consequently, whether the null hypothesis should be rejected or retained).
16 of 41
Levels of measurement
Quantitative data can be classified into types or levels of measurement, such as nominal, ordinal and interval.
17 of 41
Chi-Squared
A test for an association (difference or correlation) between two variables or conditions. Data should be nominal level using an unrelated (independent) design.
18 of 41
Mann-Whitney
A test for a significant difference between two sets of scores. Data should be at least ordinal level using an unrelated design (repeated measures).
19 of 41
Wilcoxon
A test for a significant difference between two sets of scores. Data should be at least ordinal level using a related design (repeated measures).
20 of 41
Spearman’s rho
A test for correlation when data is at least ordinal level.
21 of 41
Pearson’s r
A parametric test for correlation when data is at interval level.
22 of 41
Related t-test
A parametric test for difference between two sets of scores. Data must be interval with a related design, ie repeated measures or matched pairs.
23 of 41
Unrelated t-test
A parametric test for difference between two sets of scores. Data must be interval with an unrelated design, ie independent groups.
24 of 41
Probability
A measure of the likelihood that a particular event will occur where 0 indicates statistical impossibility and 1 statistical certainty.
25 of 41
Significance
A statistical term that tells us how sure we are that a difference or correlation exists. A ‘significant’ result means that the researcher can reject the null hypothesis.
26 of 41
Critical value
When testing a hypothesis, the numerical boundary or cut-off point between acceptance and rejection of the null hypothesis.
27 of 41
Type I error
The incorrect rejection of a true null hypothesis (a false position).
28 of 41
Type II error
The failure to reject a false null hypothesis (a false negative).
29 of 41
Abstract
The key details of the research report.
30 of 41
Introduction
A look at past research (theory and/or studies) on a similar topic. Includes the aims and hypothesis.
31 of 41
Method
A description of what the researcher(s) did, including design, sample, apparatus/materials, procedure, ethics.
32 of 41
Results
A description of what the researcher(s) found, including descriptive and inferential statistics.
33 of 41
Discussion
A consideration of what the results of a research study tell us in terms of psychological theory.
34 of 41
References
List of sources that are referred to or quoted in the article, eg journal articles, books or websites, and their full details.
35 of 41
Paradigm
A set of shared assumptions and agreed methods within a scientific discipline.
36 of 41
Paradigm shift
The result of a scientific revolution: a significant change in the dominant unifying theory within a scientific discipline.
37 of 41
Objectivity
When all sources of personal bias are minimised so as not to distort or influence the research process.
38 of 41
The empirical method
Scientific approaches that are based on the gathering of evidence through direct observation and experience.
39 of 41
Replicability
The extent to which scientific procedures and findings can be repeated by other researchers.
40 of 41
Falsifiability
The principle that a theory cannot be considered scientific unless it admits the possibility of being proved untrue (false).
41 of 41

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

A mathematical technique in which a researcher investigates an association between two variables, called co-variables.

Back

Correlation

Card 3

Front

A number between -1 and +1 that represents the direction and strength of a relationship between co-variables.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

An in-depth investigation, description and analysis of a single individual, group, institution or event.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

A research technique that enables the indirect study of behaviour by examining communications that people produce, for example, in texts, emails, TV, film and other media.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Psychology resources:

See all Psychology resources »See all Research methods and techniques resources »