Research methods key terms

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Confidentiality
Keeping the participants details anonymous
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Concurrent Validity
The extent to which the results correspond to other studies results
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Debrief
Participant is talked to after the experiment and the aim and any deception is explained, they also check for any harm done
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Deception
Telling the participant one thing and doing another, so the information given is false, lying to the participant
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External Reliability
The external consistency of the results, whether if it was tested again with the same participant but a different occasion, the same results would be produced
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Face Validity
The extent to which the study measures what it set out to measure
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Informed Consent
When a participant is fully informed of what the experiment entails and gives full consent
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Internal Reliability
The consistency of the results within the study
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Interval level data
Data with set measurements, e.g. weight, time, height ext
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Nominal data
Date that can be categorised but not ordered
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Ordinal data
Ranked data, data which people have ranked certain things (e.g.
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Predictive Validity
The degree to which the test can accurately predict what will be in the future
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Privacy
Not breaching anyones privacy by spying on them in an observation study, observe in public setting or in a lab
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Qualitative Data
Rich descriptive date (words)
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Quantitative Data
Numerical data
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Right to withdraw
The right of the participant to stop the experiment at any time
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Skewed Distribution
Where the measures of central tendency (Mean, median, mode) have different values causing a negative skew (mean on the left) or a positive skew (mean on the right), shown by a bell curve
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Individual differences
Differences between the participants which can vary the results (IQ, age, gender, background ect)
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Split-half method
A method to test internal reliability, split a questionare in half and give one group of participants on and the other group the other, high internal validity if both groups have consistent themes ext
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Test-retest method
A method to test external reliability, do the same test again with the same participants at a different time, if the same results are produced, high external reliability
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Thematic Analysis
A method for analysing qualitative data, focusing on identifying themes and patterns in the data
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Laboratory Experiment (Adv's and Disadv's)
A controlled environment with controlled conditions (Advs- Good control, can be replicated, show causality) (Disadv's- Artificial, low mundane realism, low ecological validity)
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Field Experiment (Adv's and Disadv's)
Variables are assessed in an everyday environment (Adv's- Less artificial, better mundane realism, better ecological validity) (Disadv's- Harder to control extraneous variables, replication is harder)
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Experimental Hypothesis
States that there will be a difference and exactly what the difference will be
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Null hypothesis
States that there will be no difference
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Independent Variable (IV)
The variable that you change to monitor its effect on the dependent variable
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Dependent Variable (DV)
The variable that you monitor
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1 Tailed Experiment
Due to previous studies backing up the outcome, a directional hypothesis is predicted and it is 1 tailed
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2 Tailed Experiment
An uncertain outcome due to previous evidence contradicting the outcome so a non-directional hypothesis is predicted and it is a 2 tailed.
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Operationalising
Reducing subjectivity of something, making something clear, eg deciding exactly how you will manipulate the IV and how the DV will be measured
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Extraneous Variable
A variable that might interfere the DV
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Confounding Variable
A variable that has definitely interfered with the DV
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Participant Variables
The ways participants vary from each other, effecting the results (Individual differences)
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Situational Variables
Variables that effect the experiments results in the environment, like temperature, time ect
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Alternative Hypothesis
A hypothesis that states that there will be a difference but doesn't actually state the difference (general hypothesis)
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Questionnaire
A series of questions that are designed to test a certain behavior or attitude, they can be quick and cheap and gather loads of data, assessing a large sample
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Closed Question
Pre-set answers to the question, eg answered by ticking a box
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Likert-scale
Fixed set of answers on how strongly you agree with a certain statement
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Ranked scale
Ranking or ordering a set of data, eg a placing animals in order of most liked to least liked
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Open-ended questions
Questions where the participant can freely answer and do not have any pre-set answers
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Ambiguous Questions
Questions that are not clear and are open to interpretation
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Leading questions
Questions that lead the participant to answer a certain way
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Double-barrelled questions
2 questions merged into 1 eg do you prefer brown trousers and blue shoes?
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Social Desirability bias
Where a participant acts or responds in a way that is socially acceptable but not necessarily how they would act
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Interview
A face to face meeting where the participant is asked a series of questions, assessing certain behaviors or attitudes
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Structured Interview
Standardised so all participants are asked the same questions in the same way
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Semi-structured Interview
The interviewer has a set of questions to ask but the interview is more conversational and it doesn't have to be standardised
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Unstructured Interview
The interviewer has a loose aim to investigate but has more of a conversation with the participant and develops a relationship
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Pilot study
A small scale study conducted before the actual study to identify any flaws and giving opportunity to change the study if necessary
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Researcher Effects
The researcher conducting the study could effect the way participants respond due to age gender ect
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Random Sampling
When everyone is the target population has an equal chance of being picked for the sample
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Opportunity Sampling
Gathering a sample of people who are able and willing at that time
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Volunteer Sampling
A sample of people who have volunteered themsleves for the experiment, responding to an advertisement ect
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Stratified Sample
Classifying the population into categories and selecting an equal sample from each category
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Mean
The average score, used for interval data
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Mode
Most common score, used for nominal data
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Median
Middle value of the scores, used for ordinal data
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Range
The difference between the highest and the lowest score, used for interval data
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Standard Deviation
A measure or dispersion of scores around the mean, the higher the standard deviation, the greater the spread of scores
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Independent Measures
Where 2 groups of participants do different conditions (1 group only does 1 condition)
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Repeated Measures
Where the same group of participants do both conditions
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Matched Pairs
Like independent groups but the participants are matched up according to gender age, social background, education ect
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Random errors
Caused by extraneous variables randomly, effect both IV and DV equally
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Constant errors
Caused by extraneous variables and effects one variable more than the other, they reduce the internal validity of the study
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Control of Extraneous variables?
Standardised procedures, random allocation, randomisation, change the experimental design accordingly, single or double blind, counterbalancing of order of conditions
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Hawthorne Effect
The presence of the researcher effects the participants performance
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Single blind
Where the participant doesnt know the aim of the study
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Double blind
Where both the participant and the researcher doesnt know the aim
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Internal Validity
The extent to which the study is free of design flaws or extraneous variables which effect the results
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Construct validity
How well the measure is at being a useful indicator of the behavior that is meant to be studied
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External Validity
The extent to which the findings can be generalised to other people and situations
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Ecological Validity
The extent the findings can be applied to real life or everyday situations
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Population Validity
The extent to which the findings can be generalised to other people
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Advantages of Laboratory experiment
Good control, Objectivity, replicability, reliability
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Disadvantages of a Laboratory experiment
Not very ecologically valid, demand characteristics, experimenter effects, generalisability
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Advantages of Field experiment
High ecological validity, can be generalised, reduces demand characteristics, it is credible
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Disadvantages of Field experiment
Low internal validity, ethical issues, reliability
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Inferential Statistics
Statics that allow you to find out if your results are statistically significant
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Statistically significant
If your results are statistically significant, it is unlikely that the occurred by chance and so we can reject our null hypothesis, visa versa
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P≤0.05
The usual significant level to predict chance of the results occurring by chance,
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Type 1 error
A false positive, rejecting the null when it is more possible that the results happened by chance, due to the significance level being too lenient
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Type 2 error
A false negative, accepting the null hypothesis when it is more possible that the results were significant, cause by a significant level being too strict
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When do you use a Wilcoxon test?
When your experiment used the repeated measures design
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Describe the Wilcoxon test
Work out the difference between 2 conditions, rank data, sum of +ve and sum of -ve, lowest of sums is the observed value, find the critical value in table, if ob value is less than or equal to critical, it is significant
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When do you use the Mann-Whitney U test?
When your experiment used the independent groups design
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Describe the Mann-Whitney U test
Rank the scores from each group as a whole, count No. participants in each group, sum or ranks seperately in each group, use the formula for group A, then B, smallest value is observed value of U, compare with critical, if less than or =, significant
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Card 2

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The extent to which the results correspond to other studies results

Back

Concurrent Validity

Card 3

Front

Participant is talked to after the experiment and the aim and any deception is explained, they also check for any harm done

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Telling the participant one thing and doing another, so the information given is false, lying to the participant

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

The external consistency of the results, whether if it was tested again with the same participant but a different occasion, the same results would be produced

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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