Research methods key terms

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Process of ensuring that variables are in a form that can be easily tested.
Operationalisation
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The extent to which 2 measures are consistent.
Reliability
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Term used to describe instructions or procedures that are the same for all participants to avoid investigator effects & enable replication of the study.
Standardised
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An investigative method generally involves a face-to-face interaction with another individual and results in the collection of data.
Interview
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A calculation of the extent to which a measure varies from another measure of the same thing.
External Reliability.
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The kind of data that expresses what people think or feel and cannot be counted.
Qualitative
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A technique of selecting participants such that every member of the population being tested has an equal chance of being selected.
Random
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The mode is one measure of central tendency. Name 2 others.
Mean Median
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The middle value in a set of scores when they are placed in rank order.
Median
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Shows a relationship between 2 variables.
Correlation
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A satatistical measure of the amount of variationin a set of scores around the mean.
Standardisation
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In an experiment, the variable that is measured by the experimenter.
DV
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A small-scale trial of a study, run to test any aspects of the design, with a view of making improvements.
Pilot
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A number between -1 and +1 that tells us how closely the co-variables in a correlational ananlysis are related.
Correlational Coefficient.
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In an interview or questionnaire, questions that invite the respondents to provide their own answers rather than select one of those provided.
Open
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An experimental design in which participants are randomly allocated to one (or more) groups representing different conditions.
Independent Groups
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A type of research design in which participants are not aware of the research aims or of which condition of the experiment they are recieving.
Single Blind.
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Features of an experiment that a participant unconsciously responds to when searching for clues about how to behave.
Demand Characteristics.
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A research design in which neither the participant not the experimenter is aware of the condition that an individual participant is recieveing.
Double Blind
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The extent to which an observed effect can be attributed to the experimental manipulation rather than some other factor.
Internal Validity.
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Data that represent how much, how long, or how many etc there are of something.
Quantative
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An experimental technique designed to overcome order effects.
Counterbalancing
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A type of invesigation in which the invesigator cannot manipulate the IV directly, but in which it varies naturally.
Natrual
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A sampling technique that relies solely on people who offer to participate, usually in response to an ad.
Volenteer
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The kind of reliability in which something is consistent within itself. e.g. all test items should test the same thing.
Interal
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Kind of sampling in which people are selected who are most eaily available at the time of the study.
Opportunity.
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A correlation between 2 variables such that, as the value of one co-variable increases, the other decreases.
Negative
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In a repeated measures design, a confounding variable arising from the sequence in which conditions are presented e.g. fatigue effect.
Order Effect
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In an experiment, the varibale that is manipulated by the experimenter.
IV
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An experiment in which the relationship between an IV and DV is studied within the context in which the behaviour normally occurs, (usually) without the participants knowing they are part of the study.
Field.
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Predicts the kind of difference (e.g more or less) or relationship (+ or -) between 2 groups of participants or between different conditions.
Directional
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Kind of correlation in which both variables increase together,
Positive
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The extent to which 2 measures are consistent.

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Reliability

Card 3

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Term used to describe instructions or procedures that are the same for all participants to avoid investigator effects & enable replication of the study.

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

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An investigative method generally involves a face-to-face interaction with another individual and results in the collection of data.

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Card 5

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A calculation of the extent to which a measure varies from another measure of the same thing.

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