Research Methods Key Terms

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Quantitative Data
Data in a numerical form that can show patterns in society
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Qualitative Data
Data that is in the written form it can show meanings and reasons
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Primary Data
Information collected by the researcher for their own purpose
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Secondary Data
Information that has already been collected or created by someone else for their own purpose
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Positivist
They study society scientifically and objectively, looking for patterns to prove social facts
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Interpretivist
They study society through individual meanings and reasons to help interperate human behviour
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Social facts
Positivists like to collect data and then establish facts about that topic of study
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Verstehen
Interpretivists like to show understanding and empthy towards the subject matter
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Practical issues
The basic practicality of doing the research
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Ethical issues
The moral conduct of the research, this proects the integrity of the researcher and the safeguard of the participants
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Theoretical issues
The value of the research towards society
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Hypothesis
A possible explanation that can be tested by collecting evidence to prove it true or false
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Research aim
The researcher identify's what they intend to study and hope to achive by doing the research
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Operationalising concepts
The process of converting a sociological concept into something you cna measure
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Pilot study
The creation of a small sample of people so they can make sure they aren't wasting money
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Sample
A sample is a smaller sub-group drawn from the wider group of people
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Sample frame
A list of people applicable for the study
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Random stratisfied sampling
A representative sampling technique where a sample is broken down into population frames and then taken propartionally
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Random sampling
A representative sampling technique where everyone has an equal chance of being selected
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Systematic sampling
A representative sampling technique where every nth person in a sample frame is selected
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Snowball sampling
A non-represenative sampling technique where they ask one person to recommend people that may be applicable for the study
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Opportunity sampling
A non-representative sampling technique where the researcher will choose individuals through the ease of access
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Questionnares
They are a method of research where you ask the participant to answer pre-set questions
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Open questions
The participants get asked questions with no pre-selected answers
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Closed questions
The participants get asked to answer questions with pre-selected answers
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Interviews
An interview is where the researcher has social interaction between them and the interviewee
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Structured interview
This is where the interview is conducted in the same way, with the same questions each time
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Unstructured interview
This is where the interview has no question order and the interviewer has the freedom to ask different questions
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Rapport
Where the interviewer and interviewee create a relationships between eachother
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Participant observation
This is the method where the researcher takes part in the event or everyday activities of a group and observes their actions
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Non-participant observations
This method is where the researcher doesn't take part in the activities and only observes the group
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Overt
This is where the particpants know the full aim of the research and that they are part of it
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Covert
This is where the real identity and purpose of the research/er is hidden from the participants
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Structured observations
The researcher creates a pre-determined schedual that the observation keeps to
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Unstructured observations
This is where the researcher lets people do things like normal and bulids up their theory from that
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Laboratory experiments
This type of experiment is where the particpants are put into a artificial environment where the researcher can manipulate the variables
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Independent variable
The thing you can change and manipulate to see how it effects your dependent variable
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Dependent variable
The thing that the researcher measures to see the effect of the independent variable
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Experiment group
The group of participants that will be involved in the research
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Control group
The group of participants that aren't effected by the research and are just used for comparison
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Field experiment
This type of experiment is where you studyy someone in their natural environment, with or without their knowledge
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Comparative method
This method doesn't actually include any people and is a thought experiment carried out by the sociologist
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Official statisitcs
This is quantitative data that has been collected by the goverment or other official bodies
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Document method
This can include any visual, auditory, imagery or written form of communication
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Content analysis
This is the analysis of doocuments produced by the mass media
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Card 2

Front

Data that is in the written form it can show meanings and reasons

Back

Qualitative Data

Card 3

Front

Information collected by the researcher for their own purpose

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Information that has already been collected or created by someone else for their own purpose

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

They study society scientifically and objectively, looking for patterns to prove social facts

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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