Research Methods Definitions

HideShow resource information
What is the definition of an opportunity sample?
Using the people available at the time
1 of 126
What is the advantage of opportunity sampling?
It's quick and convenient
2 of 126
What is a disadvantage of opportunity sampling?
It can be biased and unrepresentative
3 of 126
What is the definition of self-selected/ volunteer sample?
The participants volunteer to take part in the study
4 of 126
What is an advantage of a Self-selected sample/ volunteer sample?
It's unbiased, quick and convenient
5 of 126
What is a disadvantage of self-selected/ volunteer sample?
Unrepresentative of target population
6 of 126
What is random sampling?
Each member of the target population has an equal chance of being chosen
7 of 126
What is an advantage of random sampling?
Unbiased and representative sample
8 of 126
What is a disadvantage of random sampling?
Time consuming and can be expensive
9 of 126
What is an experimental hypothesis?
A hypothesis for an experiment
10 of 126
What is a research hypothesis?
A hypothesis for research other than experiments
11 of 126
what does an alternate hypothesis do?
It predicts that there will be a relationship between the IV and the DV
12 of 126
What does a null hypothesis do?
It predicts that there will not be a relationship between the IV and DV
13 of 126
What does a one-tailed hypothesis do?
It does not predict a direction for the relationship between the IV and the DV
14 of 126
What does a two-tailed hypothesis do?
Predicts the direction of the relationship between the IV and DV
15 of 126
What does "operationalising variables" mean?
Making variables measurable
16 of 126
What ethics do studies need to abide by?
Deception, Debrief, Right to Withdraw, Informed Consent, Protection from harm and Privacy (DDRIPP)
17 of 126
What is an experiment?
A way of studying behaviour that manipulates variables
18 of 126
What is the definition of a lab experiment?
The IV is manipulated in a controlled environment
19 of 126
What is an advantage of a lab experiment?
It can establish that the IV caused the DV, it's easy to replicate and has fewer extraneous variables
20 of 126
What is a disadvantage of a lab experiment?
It can lack EV and have demand characteristics
21 of 126
What is the definition of a field experiment?
The IV is manipulated in a natural environment
22 of 126
What is an advantage of a field experiment?
High ecological validity and fewer demand characteristics
23 of 126
What is a disadvantage of a field experiment?
Can have ethical issues, more extraneous variables
24 of 126
What is a quasi experiment?
Has a naturally occurring IV
25 of 126
What is the advantage of a quasi experiment?
Depends if conducted in lab or field
26 of 126
What is a disadvantage of a quasi experiment?
Can't be sure is the extraneous variables are affecting the results
27 of 126
What is the definition of repeated measures?
All participants experience all conditions
28 of 126
What is an advantage of repeated measures?
Participant variables do not affect the results, not many participants needed
29 of 126
What is a disadvantage of repeated measures?
Demand characteristics and order effects can affect the results
30 of 126
What is the definition of independent measures?
Different participants are used for each condition
31 of 126
What is an advantage of independent measures?
There are no demand characteristics or order effects
32 of 126
What is a disadvantage of independent measures?
Uses lots of participants, participant variables can affect the results
33 of 126
What is the definition of matched pairs?
Participants are put into group based on characteristics
34 of 126
What is an advantage of matched pairs?
Fewer participant variables, no order effects
35 of 126
What is a disadvantage of matched pairs?
Needs lots of participants
36 of 126
What is counterbalancing?
A way of avoiding order effects: half the participants experience condition A then B and half experience B then A
37 of 126
What types of validity are there?
Face Validity, ecological validity, population validity, temporal validity
38 of 126
What is the definition of an observation?
Investigations where the researcher observes a situation and records what happens but does not manipulate an independent variable
39 of 126
What is a covert observation?
Participants do not know they are being observed, Psychologist can't be seen
40 of 126
What is an advantage of a covert observation?
No demand characteristics, high ecological validity
41 of 126
What is a disadvantage of a covert observation?
Difficult to conduct a remain hidden, unethical
42 of 126
What is an overt observation?
Participants know they are being observed, Psychologist can be seen
43 of 126
What is an advantage of an overt observation?
No ethical issues
44 of 126
What is a disadvantage of an overt observation?
Demand characteristics and low ecological validity
45 of 126
What is a participant observation?
The researcher is a part of the group being observed
46 of 126
What is an advantage of a participant observation?
Gives an in-depth and detailed understanding of behaviour and high ecological validity
47 of 126
What is a disadvantage of a participant observation?
Ethical issues, not objective and researchers can influence participants
48 of 126
What is a non-participant observation?
The researcher is not part of the group being observed
49 of 126
What is an advantage of a non-participant observation?
No ethics, objective, won't influence behaviour in terms of suggesting behaviour
50 of 126
What is a disadvantage of a non-participant observation?
Low ecological validity, possible demand characteristics and not as in depth
51 of 126
What is the definition of a structured observation?
An observation that uses a coding scheme to record behaviour
52 of 126
What is an advantage of using a coding scheme?
Fairly simple to carry out and that they provide quantitative data which can be analysed statistically
53 of 126
What is a disadvantage of using a coding scheme?
It gives a very restricted view of wha is actually happening, might miss behaviour
54 of 126
What is the definition of an unstructured observation?
Only behaviour that is seen is recorded
55 of 126
What is an advantage of an unstructured observation?
Provides rich qualitative data
56 of 126
What is a disadvantage of an unstructured observation?
Possible to miss behaviour
57 of 126
Whats is a naturalistic observation?
An observation conducted in the participant's natural environment
58 of 126
What is an advantage of a naturalistic observation?
Higher ecological validity and fewer demand characteristics
59 of 126
What is the disadvantage of a naturalistic observation?
More extraneous variables and harder to use recording equipment
60 of 126
What is a controlled observation?
observation conducted in a controlled environment
61 of 126
What is an advantage of a controlled observation?
Fewer extraneous variables and easier to use recording equpiment
62 of 126
What is a disadvantage of a controlled observation?
Reduced extraneous variables and demand characteristics
63 of 126
What is event sampling?
Recording behaviour every time it happens
64 of 126
What is a disadvantage of event sampling?
In a large sample, can be difficult to track and record behaviour, greater change will miss an event
65 of 126
What is an advantage of event sampling?
More representative of unusual behaviour
66 of 126
What is time sampling?
Recording behaviour at a set time for example every 10 mins
67 of 126
What is an advantage of time sampling?
easier to watch a large group, this is less tiring for the observer
68 of 126
What is a disadvantage of time sampling?
Cannot record unusual behaviour if it does not occur during the observable periods
69 of 126
What is a self-report?
Collecting data by asking participants to answer questions
70 of 126
What is a questionnaire?
A written way of gaining self-reported data
71 of 126
What is an advantage of a questionnaire?
Quick, easy, cheap for large numbers
72 of 126
What is a disadvantage of a questionnaire?
Leading/ambiguous/too many questions, social desirability, low response rate (high participant attrition)
73 of 126
Whats is an open question?
A question which leaves a space for the participants to write their responses
74 of 126
What is an advantage of an open question?
In depth responses, what participant actually thinks
75 of 126
What is a disadvantage of an open question?
Can be difficult and time consuming to analyse
76 of 126
What is a closed question?
Where participants choose the answer that best fits them
77 of 126
What is an advantage of a close question?
Easy to score and analyse
78 of 126
What is a disadvantage of a closed question?
Restricted range of responses, participants forced to respond in one way, not detailed
79 of 126
What is a likert scale?
Scales that are rated using description (strongly agree/ strongly disagree)
80 of 126
What is an advantage of a likert scale?
Can be treated as numbers - easy to analyse
81 of 126
What is a disadvantage of a likert scale?
Force participants to have an opinion if even scale
82 of 126
What is a rating scale?
Asks participants to rate things on a number scale (1-10)
83 of 126
What is an advantage of a rating scale?
More depth than yes/no and easy to analyse
84 of 126
What is a disadvantage if a rating scale?
Forces participants to be positive or negative on the scale
85 of 126
What is an interview?
Self reports conducted face to face, written down on the spot, or recorded and transcribed
86 of 126
Whats is an advantage of an interview?
Participants feel more comfortable discussing questions in person than questionnaire
87 of 126
What is a disadvantage of an interview?
Participants can't be anonymous, evaluation anxiety, social desirability
88 of 126
What is a structured interview?
Where set questions are asked to eat participant in the same order
89 of 126
What is an advantage of a structured interview
Easier to gather quantitative data than a clinical interview, so easier to analyse
90 of 126
What is a disadvantage of a structured interview?
Artificial, evaluation anxiety, social desirability, less depth, can't follow up interesting answers
91 of 126
What is an unstructured interview?
Uses a list of prompts, questions asked based on participants answers
92 of 126
What is an advantage of an unstructured interview?
Gather in depth qualitative data
93 of 126
What is a disadvantage of an unstructured interview?
Likely to cover broad range of topics so harder to compare and analyse results of different participants
94 of 126
What psychometric tests are there?
IQ, personality, mood scales, attitude scales, aptitude scales
95 of 126
What factors can affect validity in self-reports?
Social desirability, interviewer bias, leading and ambiguous questions, content validity, population validity
96 of 126
What is inter rater reliability?
Making sure that two observers or raters produce the same results
97 of 126
Whats do correlations use instead of IV/DV?
Co-variables
98 of 126
What is positive correlation?
As one variable increases, so does the other
99 of 126
What is negative correlation?
As one variable decreases, so does the other
100 of 126
What is no correlation/
There seems to be no relationship between the variables
101 of 126
What is a correlation?
A method that establishes a relationship between variables, NOT cause and effect
102 of 126
What is the advantage of correlations?
They can tell us something new about existing data, they can be used where ethics are an issue for experiments, they can act as a starting point for other investigations
103 of 126
What are the disadvantages of correlations?
Do not show cause and effect, other variables could explain relationship, can't explain why there is a relationship
104 of 126
How can hypothesis be used for correlations?
H1: There will be a correlation... Ho: There will be no correlation... One tailed: there will be positive/negative correlation
105 of 126
What is the mean?
The average, the sum of all the numbers divided by the number of participants
106 of 126
Whats are the strengths of a mean?
Uses all values, most representative
107 of 126
What are the weaknesses of a mean
Not good for nominal data, unrepresentative of extreme values
108 of 126
What is the median?
Middle score of all the data in ascending order
109 of 126
What are the strengths of a median?
Unaffected by extreme values
110 of 126
What are the weaknesses of a median?
Not as sensitive, not good for nominal values, ignores outliers
111 of 126
What is the mode?
Value that appears most often
112 of 126
What are the strengths of a mode?
Can be used with any type of data, easy
113 of 126
What is the range?
The spread of data/ largest - smallest
114 of 126
What are the weaknesses of a mode?
Not useful if various values appear lots, not useful for small sets of data
115 of 126
What are the strengths of a range?
Easy to calculate
116 of 126
What are the weaknesses of a range?
May be affected by extraneous variables, doesn't indicate how tightly/widely spread the data is
117 of 126
What is the standard deviation?
How much the data deviates from the mean
118 of 126
What are the strengths of a standard deviation?
More precise than range as uses all data, allows researcher to know how much scores vary
119 of 126
What are the weaknesses of a standard deviation?
More difficult to calculate extreme data not relevant
120 of 126
What are the strengths of a self-report?
Can be used to collect a range of qualitative and quantatitive data, find out the participants perception of data, not always possible to observe behaviour
121 of 126
What are the weaknesses of self-reports?
Participants suffer evaluation anxiety/ social desirability/ response bias, leading/ ambiguous questions, difficult to ask questions in reliable ways
122 of 126
What are the strengths of observations?
Natural- high ecological validity, records how people actually behave, it can produce hypothesis for further testing
123 of 126
What are the weaknesses of observations?
Can't establish cause and effect/ IV and DV (none), difficult to record data in a reliable way. observer bias
124 of 126
What are the strengths of experiments?
More control over extraneous variables, establishes cause and effect, standardised procedure
125 of 126
What are the weaknesses of experiments?
Total control of extraneous variables isn't possible, low ecological validity, sampling/experimenter bias and demand characteristics
126 of 126

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is the advantage of opportunity sampling?

Back

It's quick and convenient

Card 3

Front

What is a disadvantage of opportunity sampling?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is the definition of self-selected/ volunteer sample?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is an advantage of a Self-selected sample/ volunteer sample?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Psychology resources:

See all Psychology resources »See all Research methods and techniques resources »