# Research Methods and Statistics

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- Created by: Claudia225
- Created on: 10-04-16 14:38

What are the assumptions of a dependent ANOVA?

Interval/ratio data, normal distribution, homogeneity of variance

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What do you do when just homogeneity of variance is violated when using a dependent ANOVA?

Use sphericity / homogeneity of covariance (MAUCHLY'S TEST) and if this is less than 0.05 then it has been violated and Greenhouse Geisser correction is used instead.

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What if other assumptions are violated using dependent ANOVA?

Use Friedman's non-parametric test

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What Post-Hoc test do you use with a dependent ANOVA?

Bonferroni

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When do you use a dependent ANOVA?

When you have a within subjects design (repeated measures) where the same group of people take part in different conditions in the study.

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What Post-Hoc test do you use with an independent ANOVA?

Tukey

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When do you use an independent ANOVA?

When you have a between subjects design, where different people take part in different conditions of a study.

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What do you do when the assumptions of an independent ANOVA are violated?

Use a non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test

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What are the assumptions of an independent ANOVA?

normal distribution, interval/ratio data, homogeneity of variance

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How do you report an ANOVA test?

F=(effect df, error df)=?, MSE=?, p=?

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How do you report Friedman's test?

X2(df)=?, p=?

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How do you report a Kruskal-Wallis test?

X2(df,n=?)=?, p=?

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What are the assumptions of a t test?

normally distributed, DV must be interval/ratio, each data point must be independent, and homogeneity of variance (less than .05 it has been violated)

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If assumptions aren't violated and there is a between subjects design, what t test do we use?

Independent t test

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If assumptions aren't violated and there is a within subjects design, what type of t test do we use?

Paired sample t test

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When assumptions are violated and there is a within samples design, what non-parametric test do we use?

Wilcoxon

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When assumptions are violated and there is a between subjects design, what non-parametric test do we use?

Man-Whitney

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How do we report t tests?

t(df)=?, p=?

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How do we report a Wilcoxon test?

W=?, z=?, p=?

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How do we report a Man-Whitney test?

U=?, z=?, p=?

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What is the difference between correlations and regression?

Regression also allows the prediction of the DV from the IV. Correlations just examine the relationship between two continuously valued interval/ratio variables.

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What is r?

r is the correlation coefficient, and its a measure of strength and direction of the relationship of the variables

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What are the assumptions of Pearson's r?

the relationship of the variables must be linear, must be normally distributed, interval/ratio data, and no major outliers

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What do you use when the assumptions are violated?

Spearman's rho

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How do you report a correlation?

r=?, p=?

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What are the assumptions of a regression?

data must interval/ratio, relationship must be linear, normality of residuals, homoscedasticity

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How do you report a regression?

F(effect df, error df)=?, MSE=?, p=? Adjusted R2=?

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When do you use a Chi-square test?

To find the difference between two variables, when the data is categorical (nominal), and the design of the study is between subjects

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What are the assumptions of a chi-square test?

Each participant, item or entity must only contribute to just one cell in the table, and more than 5 frequencies in each cell but 20% of cells are allowed to be less

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How do you report a chi-square test?

X2=?, df=?, p=?

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What test is used instead of chi-squared, when there are repeated measures?

McNamer (can only be used for 2x2 table)

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What is an alternative hypothesis?

The idea that two variables are related in some way

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What is a null hypothesis?

The idea that two variables aren't related

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What is a type I error?

We think there is a relationship but there isn't (wrongly reject null hypothesis)

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What is a type II error?

We think there isn't a relationship between the two variables when there is, but we missed it (wrongly retain the null hypothesis)

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What does p have to be in order to be significant and therefore be less than alpha?

0.05

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Why is p

In order to minimise our odds of making a mistake, as wrongly rejecting the null hypothesis is BAD

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What are z scores?

A way of comparing a data point to the distribution it comes from

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How are z scores calculated?

individual score-mean, then divide this by the SD

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## Other cards in this set

### Card 2

#### Front

What do you do when just homogeneity of variance is violated when using a dependent ANOVA?

#### Back

Use sphericity / homogeneity of covariance (MAUCHLY'S TEST) and if this is less than 0.05 then it has been violated and Greenhouse Geisser correction is used instead.

### Card 3

#### Front

What if other assumptions are violated using dependent ANOVA?

#### Back

### Card 4

#### Front

What Post-Hoc test do you use with a dependent ANOVA?

#### Back

### Card 5

#### Front

When do you use a dependent ANOVA?

#### Back

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