Research Methods and Statistics

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What are the assumptions of a dependent ANOVA?
Interval/ratio data, normal distribution, homogeneity of variance
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What do you do when just homogeneity of variance is violated when using a dependent ANOVA?
Use sphericity / homogeneity of covariance (MAUCHLY'S TEST) and if this is less than 0.05 then it has been violated and Greenhouse Geisser correction is used instead.
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What if other assumptions are violated using dependent ANOVA?
Use Friedman's non-parametric test
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What Post-Hoc test do you use with a dependent ANOVA?
Bonferroni
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When do you use a dependent ANOVA?
When you have a within subjects design (repeated measures) where the same group of people take part in different conditions in the study.
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What Post-Hoc test do you use with an independent ANOVA?
Tukey
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When do you use an independent ANOVA?
When you have a between subjects design, where different people take part in different conditions of a study.
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What do you do when the assumptions of an independent ANOVA are violated?
Use a non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test
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What are the assumptions of an independent ANOVA?
normal distribution, interval/ratio data, homogeneity of variance
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How do you report an ANOVA test?
F=(effect df, error df)=?, MSE=?, p=?
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How do you report Friedman's test?
X2(df)=?, p=?
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How do you report a Kruskal-Wallis test?
X2(df,n=?)=?, p=?
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What are the assumptions of a t test?
normally distributed, DV must be interval/ratio, each data point must be independent, and homogeneity of variance (less than .05 it has been violated)
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If assumptions aren't violated and there is a between subjects design, what t test do we use?
Independent t test
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If assumptions aren't violated and there is a within subjects design, what type of t test do we use?
Paired sample t test
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When assumptions are violated and there is a within samples design, what non-parametric test do we use?
Wilcoxon
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When assumptions are violated and there is a between subjects design, what non-parametric test do we use?
Man-Whitney
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How do we report t tests?
t(df)=?, p=?
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How do we report a Wilcoxon test?
W=?, z=?, p=?
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How do we report a Man-Whitney test?
U=?, z=?, p=?
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What is the difference between correlations and regression?
Regression also allows the prediction of the DV from the IV. Correlations just examine the relationship between two continuously valued interval/ratio variables.
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What is r?
r is the correlation coefficient, and its a measure of strength and direction of the relationship of the variables
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What are the assumptions of Pearson's r?
the relationship of the variables must be linear, must be normally distributed, interval/ratio data, and no major outliers
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What do you use when the assumptions are violated?
Spearman's rho
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How do you report a correlation?
r=?, p=?
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What are the assumptions of a regression?
data must interval/ratio, relationship must be linear, normality of residuals, homoscedasticity
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How do you report a regression?
F(effect df, error df)=?, MSE=?, p=? Adjusted R2=?
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When do you use a Chi-square test?
To find the difference between two variables, when the data is categorical (nominal), and the design of the study is between subjects
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What are the assumptions of a chi-square test?
Each participant, item or entity must only contribute to just one cell in the table, and more than 5 frequencies in each cell but 20% of cells are allowed to be less
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How do you report a chi-square test?
X2=?, df=?, p=?
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What test is used instead of chi-squared, when there are repeated measures?
McNamer (can only be used for 2x2 table)
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What is an alternative hypothesis?
The idea that two variables are related in some way
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What is a null hypothesis?
The idea that two variables aren't related
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What is a type I error?
We think there is a relationship but there isn't (wrongly reject null hypothesis)
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What is a type II error?
We think there isn't a relationship between the two variables when there is, but we missed it (wrongly retain the null hypothesis)
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What does p have to be in order to be significant and therefore be less than alpha?
0.05
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Why is p
In order to minimise our odds of making a mistake, as wrongly rejecting the null hypothesis is BAD
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What are z scores?
A way of comparing a data point to the distribution it comes from
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How are z scores calculated?
individual score-mean, then divide this by the SD
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What do you do when just homogeneity of variance is violated when using a dependent ANOVA?

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Use sphericity / homogeneity of covariance (MAUCHLY'S TEST) and if this is less than 0.05 then it has been violated and Greenhouse Geisser correction is used instead.

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What if other assumptions are violated using dependent ANOVA?

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What Post-Hoc test do you use with a dependent ANOVA?

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When do you use a dependent ANOVA?

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