Research methods

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Pilot studies
A test run to check for any potential problems
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Patterns and trends
Patterns are consistent relationships between two or more variables. Trend is a tendency or a direction, usually over time
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Operationalise
To measure abstract concepts by defining them in research; Eg - by writing questionnaire questions - -Where you break down a concept into something measurable, through forming categories
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Objectivity
A scientific approach to a study of society free from the bias and values of the researchers
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Subjectivity
Allowing the views and values of the researcher to be part of the research
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Versthen
Gaining an understanding of how those being researched feel, or seeing the world through their eyes
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Hawthorne effect
People may change their behaviour in front of the researcher
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Empathy
Ability to sense peoples emotions, and understand why they feel a certain way
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Rapport
Development of a relationship between the interviewer and the interviewee
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Triangulation
The use of more than one method in research
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Methodological pluralism
An approach that is usually in two stages, the methods used are of equal status (to study different aspects of the research question)
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Researcher imposition
Ways in which a researcher may impose his or her own values on the research process
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Mixed methods
Using a combination of methods
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Gatekeeper
The person or persons who are able to give the researcher access to the people that they want to study
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Target population
The group of people the researcher is interested in studying, and from whom a sample will be drawn
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Validity
Extent to which the research is a true picture of the social reality of those being studied
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Reliability
Extent to which the research can be repeated, and the same or similar results are produced
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Representativeness
Extent to which a sample is a fair reflection of the target populations
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Generalisable
Ability to apply the findings of some research to the whole population being studied
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Anonymity
Protect people’s identity at all times. Do not give real names or clues to who they are which might identify them
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Trust
Do not abuse the trust of people who are being studied
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Confidentiality
The research must not breach the privacy of the studied individuals. Nothing regarded as confidential should be published, especially not names and addresses of subjects.
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Access
Being able to get in touch with the group or population that is to be studied - can be difficult if the group is deviant
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Researcher safety
Do not put yourself at risk of physical or moral danger
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Respondents safety
Do not embarrass, shame or endanger any of the subjects of the research
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Vulnerability
Some people are vulnerable because of age, infirmity or understanding. Take special care of their feelings
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Withdrawal
If people do not want to continue in a study, then they can pull out at any time
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Consent
People should know that they are being studied and should give their consent
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Random sample
Sampling technique which gives everyone the same chance of being picked
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Stratified sample
Sampling technique which, by dividing the target population into groups which the researcher is interested in studying attempts to ensure that the sample is a fair refection of the target population
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Non- random sample
Some individuals in the sampling frame have no chance of being selected
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Quota sample
A certain number of people are collected from each category
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Snowball sample
Used when there is no sampling frame
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Random sample
Sampling technique which gives everyone the same chance of being picked
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Stratified sample
Sampling technique which, by dividing the target population into groups which the researcher is interested in studying attempts to ensure that the sample is a fair refection of the target population
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Non- random sample
Some individuals in the sampling frame have no chance of being selected
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Quota sample
A certain number of people are collected from each category
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Snowball sample
Used when there is no sampling frame
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Patterns are consistent relationships between two or more variables. Trend is a tendency or a direction, usually over time

Back

Patterns and trends

Card 3

Front

To measure abstract concepts by defining them in research; Eg - by writing questionnaire questions - -Where you break down a concept into something measurable, through forming categories

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

A scientific approach to a study of society free from the bias and values of the researchers

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Allowing the views and values of the researcher to be part of the research

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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