Research methods

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What is external reliability?
A measure of consistency over several different occasions. Therefore it refers to what's going on outside the study
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What is ecological validity?
A method of assessing eternal validity that involves looking at the extent to which research findings can be generalised to other situations outside the research setting
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What is face validity?
A method of assessing internal validity that is very simple. It involves checking if the test/ questionnaire measures what it says it measures
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What is population validity?
A method of assessing external validity by looking at the extent to which results from research can be generalised to other groups of people
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What is internal validity?
Refers to what goes on inside the study. Did the researcher test what they intended to test
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What is concurrent validity?
A method of assessing internal validity that involves comparing a New test to another established valid test
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What is the test retest method?
A method of assessing external reliabilty that is carried out by giving the same test or interview to the same participants to see if the same results are obtained
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What is reliability?
Refers to the consistency of the research and if similar results can be obtained when repeated
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What is inter-rater reliability?
A method of assessing external reliability that is used for observations and interviews only. It involves comparing the ratings of two or more researchers and checking the agreement in their measures
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What is external validity?
Refers to factors outside of the study and he extent to which the research findings can be generalised to other situations, people beyond those used in the study
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What is predictive validity?
A method of assessing internal validity that correlating results of a test with some later behaviour. The ability to predict something that should theoretically be able to predict
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What is internal reliability?
A ensure of the extent to which something is consistent within itself, it refers to what is going on inside the study
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What is the split half method?
A method of assessing internal eligibility that is carried out by comparing two halves of a test to see if they produce the same score.
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What is validity?
Refers to how well a test or piece of research measures what it says it measures.
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What are the key features of science?
Replicability, objectivity, theory construction, hypothesis testing and the use of empirical methods
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Why is replicability important?
A process that involves repeating the method to see if similar results are obtained. If we want to draw conclusions from a piece of research it has to be repeatable.
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What is objectivity?
Results of a research should no be influenced by the person that is carrying out the research. The same results should be obtained regardless of the researcher
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What are the two types of theory construction?
Induction and deduction
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What does induction theory construction involve?
Observation>testable hypothesis>study conducted to test hypothesis>draw conclusions> propose theory
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What does deduction theory construction involve?
Observation>propose theory>testable hypothesis>conduct a study to test hypothesis>draw conclusions
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Why is important to test your hypothesis?
To demonstrate causal relationships that enable us to predict the world.
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How can causal relationships be demonstrated?
Variables mus be operationalised; IV only variable that effects DV; a good theory must generate a testable expectations
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What is empiricism?
Factual data that is collected by direct observations or experiments
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What is peer review?
Where psychological reports are put under scrutiny by psychologists in similar fields
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What is the purpose of peer review?
To ensure only high quality research is published and to ensure the research is methodically and ethically sound. Also so no research that is different to beliefs is published
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What can peer review assess?
How original a piece of work is
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What are the issues of peer review?
There is bias towards only publishing positive results, certain institution can get published more,prevents revolutionary work being published, peers may not publish rival research
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What are the ethical issues given by the BPS?
Protection from harm, confidentiality, informed consent, deception, right to withdraw and privacy
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What is a pilot study?
A trial run of the research study involving a representative selection of participants
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Why do we use pilot studies?
Saves time and money and any issues identified in the pilot study can be altered before the real experiment.
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What is an aim?
A studies general purpose.
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What is a null hypothesis?
A hypothesis that states results are due to chance and not significant
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What is a non directional hypothesis?
Suggests that there will be a relationship but doesn't specify the direction of effect.
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What is a directional hypothesis?
Suggests the direction of the relationship or difference and which direction it goes in
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What are the three types of experimental design?
Independent groups, repeated measures, matched pairs
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What are the strengths and weaknesses of independent groups design?
:) order effects do not influence outcome, demand characteristics less of a problem. :( pp's variables differ, more participants required
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What are the strengths and weaknesses of repeated measures?
:)participants variable kept constant, fewer participants needed :( demand characteristics, order effects
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What are the strengths and weaknesses of matched pairs design?
:) no order effects, participant variables more constant :(not perfect match and time consuming, more participants required
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What are the three types of experimental methods?
Natural, lab and field
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What are the strengths and weaknesses of natural experiments?
:) reduced demand characteristics, high generalisability :( difficult to replicate, cause and effect difficult to establish
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What are the strengths and weaknesses of lab experiments?
:) high internal validity, easily replicated :( low ecological validity, prone to demand characteristics
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What are the strengths and weaknesses of field experiments?
:) high ecological validity, reduced demand characteristics :( lack internal validity, low population validity
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How do we overcome order effects?
Counterbalancing- all possible orders of presenting the variables are included
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How do we overcome demand characteristics?
Single blind study- when participants are not aware of the aims of the study
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How do we over come investigator effects?
Double blind study- when researcher or participant know the study aims or Inter rather reliability- the degree to which more than one investigator gets the same results
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What are the types of sampling technique?
Random,, stratified, volunteer, opportunity, snowball
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What's the pros and cons of random sampling?
Unbiased, time consuming
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What are the pros and cons of stratified sampling?
Can be representative, time consuming
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What are the pros and cons of volunteer sampling?
Quick, gathers informed consent, bias sample
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What are the pros and cons of opportunity sampling?
Quick and convinient, unrepresentative and biased
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What are the pros and cons or snowball sampling?
Can be good when population is hard to access, very bias
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What is pobability?
The likelihood of any association or difference being down to chance
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What is significance?
The difference or association between results is to big to be down to chance
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What are the types of statistical test?
Chi squared, spear mans rank, Mann Whitney and wilcoxon
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What effects the type of statistical test used?
Levels of measurement, difference or association, experimental design used
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What are the different levels of measurement?
Nominal data, ordinal data and interval ratio data
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What is nominal data?
Data that's in separate categories
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What is ordinal data?
Ordering the data (1st 2nd 3rd)
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What is interval ratio data?
Ordering people in equal intervals.
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When do we use chi squared?
Nominal data, if there a difference or association, minimum of 20 participants, observed value must be greater than the critical value
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When do we use spearmans rank?
Hypothesis predicts a correlation between 2 variables, data must be in pairs, interval or ordinal data used, observed must be greater than critical
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When do we use Mann Whitney?
Hypothesis predicts a difference, independent groups designs used, ordinal or interval data and observed must be less than critical
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When do we use wilcoxon?
Hypothesis predicts a difference, repeated measures or matched pairs used, ordinal or interval ratio data, observed value must be less than critical
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What is a type 1 error?
A false positive that occurs when a null hypothesis is rejected when in fact it should be accepted
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What is a type 2 error?
A false negative occurs when we accept the null hypothesis when it should be rejected.
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What are the key features of a psychological report?
Abstract, Introduction, Method, Results, Discussion, References, Appendicies
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What is included in the abstract?
Brief summary of the experiment covering aims, hypothesis, method, procedures, results and conclusions
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What is included in the introduction?
A review of past research, an explanation of why the current research is being carried out
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What is included in the method?
Detailed description of what the research did enough for it to be replicated including sampling techniques, experimental design, number of participants ages etc
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What is included in the results?
The results from the experiment and any statistical tests used
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What is included in the discussion?
Where observed behaviours are explained, any implications caused by the research and possible future research
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What is included in the references?
Any references used in the report
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What is included in the appendix?
Anything important a to the research that does not fit into the main body of the report.
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What does a consent from contain?
Enough information for the participants to give informed consent in their presenc in the research
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What is a debrief?
Given to participant that informs them of the true nature of the research, giving them the opportunity to withdraw their data and ask any questions
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What are standardised instructions?
Instructions that are given or read to the participants to ensure consistency and control an extraneous variables.
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What is qualitative data?
Data that is descriptive or participants views, beliefs or feelings
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What is quantitative data?
Information or data that is measured in numbers
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What is content analysis?
Converts qualitative data into quantitative by counting themes within the data
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What are the pros and cons of content analysis?
:) simple and quick way of analysing qualitative data :( richness of data lost, researcher could be ias
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What is ecological validity?

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A method of assessing eternal validity that involves looking at the extent to which research findings can be generalised to other situations outside the research setting

Card 3

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What is face validity?

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Card 4

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What is population validity?

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Card 5

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What is internal validity?

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