Research Methods

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Define: Objectivity
When the researcher lets emotions influence their theory, explanations or findings.
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Define: Replicability
The ability to repeat an experiment that has already been carried out and find similar/same results when repeated.
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Define: Control
Keeping certain conditions the same throughout the experiment.
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Define: Empirical Mehtods
Collecting data through direct observation or experiment.
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Define: Rational Research
Where a theory is constructed from reasoned argument rather than direct observation.
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Define: Theory Construction
Using facts to construct theories that will explain natural phenomena around us.
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Define: Hypothesis Testing
A testable hypothesis is constructed from a theory, testing it to find out if evidence does or doesn't supports the theory.
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Define: Deduction
1. Observation 2. Propose theory 3. Testable hypothesis 4. Test hypothesis 5. Draw conclusions
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Define: Induction
1. Observation 2. Testable hypothesis 3. Test hypothesis 4. Propose theory 5. Draw conclusions
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Can Psychology Claim to be a Science?
YES - Uses controlled experiments to test theories. NO - Studies have researcher bias, demand characteristics which compromises validity
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Define: Abstract
Summary of a study covering all of the sections
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Define: Introduction
Review of previous research leading to rationale. Hypothesis also stated.
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Define: Method
Detailed description of what the researcher did, detailed enough so i can be repeated.
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Define: Results
Contains what researchers found.
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Define: Discussion
Explanation for results gained and implications of results
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Define: References
Books, websites ect. used
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Define: Case study
In depth study of one person. Several methods (Interview+Observation)
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Define: Field Experiment
Carried out in natural environment. Extraneous variables cant control.
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Define: Interview
Detailed info from small group of people
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Define: Correlation
Measure the relationship between two variables
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Define: Content analysis
Counting how many times something occurs in interview ect. Changing qualitative data into quantitative data
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Define: Lab experiment
Controlled setting, IV manipulated DV controlled. High control of extraneous variables.
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Define: Questionnaires
Printed set of questions. Used when you want a lot of data.
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Define: Natural Experiment
IV naturally occurring (not manipulated).
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Define: Natural Experiment
IV naturally occurring (not manipulated), DV measured. Extraneous variables not controlled.
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Define: Observation
Researcher not involved, observes from afar, makes behavioural categories (hugging, kissing). Participants aware = Overt. Participants unaware = Covert.
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Define: Volunteer Sampling
Researcher advertises for volunteers via newspaper ect. participants contact researcher saying they want to take part in study.
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Define: Opportunity Sampling
Participants selected based on who is easily available. (People walking through street).
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Define: Random Sampling
Members of target pop. identified, participants randomly selected from the target pop. (Names in hat and choosing participants).
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Define: Bias
A sample of the target pop. in which some members of the pop. are less likely to be included than others.
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Define: Generalising
To the extent to which the results from the sample used can be applied to the target population as a whole.
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Card 2

Front

Define: Replicability

Back

The ability to repeat an experiment that has already been carried out and find similar/same results when repeated.

Card 3

Front

Define: Control

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Define: Empirical Mehtods

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Define: Rational Research

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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