Research methods

HideShow resource information
Experimental method
Manipulation of IV to measure effect on DV. Experiments could be lab, field, natural or quasi
1 of 73
General statement of what the researcher intends to investigate (purpose of study).
2 of 73
Clear, precise statement that states relationship between the varian;es to be investigated.
3 of 73
Directional hypothesis
States direction of relationship between variables.
4 of 73
Non-directional hypothesis
Doesn't state direction of variables.
5 of 73
Anything that can vary or change in an investigation. Generally used in experiments to determine if changes in one thing result in changes to another.
6 of 73
Independent Variable
Aspect of experiment that is manipulated or changes naturally so effect of DV can be measured.
7 of 73
Dependent Variable
Variable that is measured by the researcher. Any effect on DV should be caused by IV.
8 of 73
Clearly defining variables in terms of how they can be measured.
9 of 73
Extraneous Variable
Any variable, either than IV that may have an effect on DV if not controlled. They are useless.
10 of 73
Confounding Variables
Any variable either than IV that changes DV so we cannot be sure of the true source of changes.
11 of 73
Demand characteristics
Any cue from the researcher that may be interpreted by participants as revealing the purpose of study. This changes their behaviour.
12 of 73
Investigator effects
Any effect of the investigators behaviour on the outcome. May include design of study or interaction with participants.
13 of 73
The use of chance in order to control for the effects of bias. (Zimbardo's SPE)
14 of 73
Using the same formalised procedures for all participants in a research study.
15 of 73
Experimental design
The different ways in which the testing of participants can be organised in relation to the experimental conditions.
16 of 73
Independent groups design
Participants are allocated to different groups where each group represents one experimental conditions
17 of 73
Repeated measures
All participants take part in all conditions of the experiment.
18 of 73
Matched pairs design
Pairs of participants are first matched on some variables that might effect the DV. One member is assigned Condition A and other is Condition B.
19 of 73
Random Allocation
An attempt to control for participant variables in an independent groups design which ensures each participant has the same chance of being in one condition as any other.
20 of 73
An attempt to control for the effects of order in a repeated measures design. Half in one order, half in the other order.
21 of 73
Laboratory experiment
Takes place in controlled environment within which the researcher manipulates the IV and records the effects on the DV, whilst maintaining strict control on EV.
22 of 73
Field Experiment
Takes place in natural setting within which the researcher manipulates Iv and records DV.
23 of 73
Natural experiment
Change in IV happens naturally and the researcher records effects of DV.
24 of 73
Almost experiment but lacks key ingredients. IV has not been determined, it simply exists.
25 of 73
A group of people who are the focus of the researchers interest from which a smaller sample is drawn.
26 of 73
A group of people who take part in a research investigation. Sample in drawn from target population and represents that population.
27 of 73
Sample techniques
Method used to select people from the population.
28 of 73
Random sample
lottery method used, very unbias
29 of 73
Systematic sample
Every nth member of population is picked. sampling frame is produced.
30 of 73
Stratified sample
Composition of sample reflects proportions of people in certain subcultures.
31 of 73
Opportunity sample
Select anyone willing if people are difficult to obtain.
32 of 73
Volunteer sample
Self-selection. They asked to be part of it via advert or notice board.
33 of 73
Certain groups may be under-representated. Limits the extent that we can generalise study.
34 of 73
The extent in which finding can be broadly applied to population.
35 of 73
Ethical Issues
Arise when conflict exists between rights of participants in research studies and goals of research to produce valid results.
36 of 73
BPS code of Ethics
Legal document produced that instructs psychologists in the UK about what behaviour is acceptable.
37 of 73
Pilot study
A small scale version of an investigation that takes place before the real investigation is conducted. To check procedures and allow researcher to makes changes.
38 of 73
Naturalistic observation
Watching and recording behaviour in the setting within which it would normally occur.
39 of 73
Controlled observation
Watching and recording behaviour within the structured environment where variables are managed.
40 of 73
Covert observation
Participants behaviour is watched and recorded without their knowledge or consent.
41 of 73
Overt observation
Participants behaviour is watched and recorded with their knowledge and consent.
42 of 73
Participant observation
The researcher becomes a member of the group whose behaviour they are watching.
43 of 73
Non-participant observation
The researcher remains outside of the group whose behaviour they are watching and recording.
44 of 73
Behavioural categories
When a target behaviour is broken up into components that are observable and measurable.
45 of 73
Event sampling
A target behaviour or event is first established then the researcher records this event every time it occurs.
46 of 73
Time Sampling
A target individual or group is first established then the researcher records their behaviour in a fixed time frame like every minute.
47 of 73
Self report technique
Any method in which a person is asked to star or explain their own feelings related to a topic.
48 of 73
A set of written questions used to assess a person's thoughts and experiences.
49 of 73
A live encounter where one person asks a set of questions to assess an interviewee's thoughts. Preset or not.
50 of 73
Open questions
Questions for which there is no fixed choice or response and respondents and can answer in any way they wish.
51 of 73
Closed questions
Questions for which there is a fixed choice of responses determined by the question setter.
52 of 73
Mathematical technique in which a researcher investigates an association between two co-variables
53 of 73
Variables investigated within a correlation such as height and weight.
54 of 73
Positive Correlation
As one co-variable increases so does the other one.
55 of 73
Negative correlation
As one co-variable increases, the other decreases.
56 of 73
Zero correlation
No relationship between co-variables
57 of 73
Qualitative data
Data that is expressed in words and non-numerical. Maybe converted into numbers. High external validity but takes more time to process and difficult to analyse.
58 of 73
Quantitative data
Data that can be counted, usually as numbers. Simple to analyse, low external validity.
59 of 73
Primary data
Info obtained first hand by the researcher. Gathered directly from participants. Authentic and specific. Needs to be replicated to be valid.
60 of 73
Secondary data
Info has already been collected by someone else and so predates the current research project. Minimal effort. Helps support or contradict old study.
61 of 73
"Research about research" refers combining results from a number of studies to provide an overall view.
62 of 73
Descriptive statistics
The use of graphs, tables and summary statistics to identify trends and analyse sets of data.
63 of 73
Measures of central tendency
The general term for any measure of the average value in a set of data.
64 of 73
The arithmetic average calculated by adding up all values in a set of data and dividing by the number of values there are.
65 of 73
The central value in a set of data when values are arranged from lowest to highw
66 of 73
The most frequently occurring value in a set of data.
67 of 73
A type of graph that represents the strength and direction of a relationship between co-variables in a correctional analysis
68 of 73
Bar chart
A type of graph in which the frequency of each variable is represented by the height of the bars.
69 of 73
Statistical testing
Provides a way of determining whether hypothesis should be accepted or rejected. In psychology, they tell us whether differences or relationships between variables are statistically significant or have occurred by chance.
70 of 73
Sign test
A statistical test used to analyse the difference in scores between related items.
71 of 73
Peer review
The assessment of scientific work by others who are specialists in the same field to ensure that any research intended for publication is of high quality.
72 of 73
The state of a country or region in terms of the production and consumption of good and services.
73 of 73

Other cards in this set

Card 2


General statement of what the researcher intends to investigate (purpose of study).



Card 3


Clear, precise statement that states relationship between the varian;es to be investigated.


Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4


States direction of relationship between variables.


Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5


Doesn't state direction of variables.


Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards


No comments have yet been made

Similar Psychology resources:

See all Psychology resources »See all Research methods and techniques resources »