Research methods

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  • Created by: The Shrew
  • Created on: 19-05-16 10:54
Behavioural Psychology- 7 different ways of studying- Pavlov is an example of
Physiology- Normal functioning of living creatures
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Phobias are an example of
Psychology
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Tissue, toxins and drugs are an example of
Histology
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CNS
Anatomy
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NT/ Hormones
Endocrinology
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And two others
Neuroanatomy and Biochemistry
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Invasive physiological methods- Experimental ablation
Damage or remove area and see what happens- brain all interconnected, not necessarily valid
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Producing lesions- 3 types
Cortical, Subcortical, Knife cuts
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Cortical
Suctino device on cortical- only works on cortex
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Subcortical
Radio frequency lesion- electrode in one area- heat cells
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Knife cuts
Cut nerve or tract
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Nerve cut
Nerves bundles of axons in the PNS which transmit signals between the PNS and the CNS
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Tract cut
Mylenated axons in the CNS (white matter)
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Producing brain lesions- temporal disruption
Anaesthetic, Muscimol- GABA substance stimulates GABA which hyperpolarizes cells and inhibits
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Sham lesions
Use control animal- put needle in same place but don't activate and see difference
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Stereotaxic surgery
Used to guide where to enter the brain
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Bregma
Use google images
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Interaeral
Area between your ears
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Doesn't hurt
Ps stay awake- can see if causing damage
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Electrical stimulation
Opposite of lesion
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Micorelectrodes
records electrical activity of one neuron- can help certain disorders
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In order to use histological methods
Area of brain has to be taken out
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Prevents decomposition
Formalin
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Slice using
Microtome
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To examine
Stain areas
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Electron microscopy
Expensive/ more intensive tissue preparation/ scan for 3D pics
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Genes express ....when activated and release protein called ....
fos, Fos
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Anterograde tracing
Chemical taken by dendrites and transported through axons towards terminal buttons
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Retrograde tracing
Chemical taken by terminal buttons and one carried back through axons towards cell buttons
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Computerised Tomography (CT)
Detailed images of bone, readily detects bleeding, good for tumour patients
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CT angiography
can detect blood vessels
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Exposure to radiation means
Can't do it when pregnant, got to wait 24 hours to breastfeed
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MRI- can't be done if
Pregnant, got to wait 24 hours to breastfeed, if metal in body
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Clearness
Not as good as CT
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MRI Diffusion Tensor Tractography
Looks at symmetry of water diffusion- bundles of fibre tracks make water diffuse asymmetrically, the major axis is parallel to the direction of the fibres
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Magnetic resonance angiography
Distinguish blood vessels from static tissue
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Metabolic activity- Position emission tomography (PET)
Brain uses glucose for metabolism- inject 2-deoxyglocus (2-DG)- not metabolised so can be measured
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When radioactive substances decay
emit particles called positrons that can be detected by a scanner
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See changes early/ can give false results- Low exposure to radiation
No pregnancy etc
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Radioactive substances decay in
110 mins
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Cyclotron
Where substances are produced
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High cost
Cyclotron has to be right nearby
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fMRI
Detects oxygen in blood vessels- Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent (BOLD) signal
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Can detect
Stroke at really early stage/ brain tumours
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Exposure to radiation
None- fine for ps with metal/ avoid in first 12 weeks of pregnancy
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Detection of abnormality
that might be obscured by bone tissue
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Still evolving/ more expensive
..yeah
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Difference in use for MRI and and fMRI
MRI= anatomy/ fMRI= mental disorders
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Transcranial magnetic stimulation
Can turn off areas in healthy patients with magnetic field and see affect
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Electrocephalograms (EEG)
Record background waves then Event related potentials (ERP)
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Electromyography
Records muscle activity, either using electrodes or can be done wirelessly!
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Skin conductance
Emotions increase ability of skin to conduct electricity/ sweat increases conduction of electricity
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Cardiovascular activity recorded with
Electrocardiogram
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Blood pressure recorded with
sphygmomanometer
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Blood volume changes associated with
Sexual arousal
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Selective chemical lesions: neurotoxins
6-hydroxydopamine taken up only by neurones that produce noradrenalin and dopamine and kills them
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Kainic acid
Stimulates neurones to death
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Neural activity increases->
Meatbolic rate increases
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Autoradiograpy
Inject 2-deoxyglucose, most active cells take up most 2-DG
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How to test it
Slices of brain in radioactive ligand for particular receptor- dark mark where more receptor and more ligand attached
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Microdialysis
stick in cannula full of liquid thats like CSF, semi-permiable membrane so NT diffuse in and you can see wtf is going on
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Immunocytochemistry
Use dye to localise chemicals and enzymes that create NT
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Genetic engineering
Gene depletion!
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Leptin
Tells you to stop eating
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Gene replacement
Putting diseases in animals
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Transgenic
Animals with human genes
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Plentikov et al
Sz genes caused bigger ventricles and reduced cortex in mice
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Can put in genes that scientist can control
Use chemicals or light
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Phobias are an example of

Back

Psychology

Card 3

Front

Tissue, toxins and drugs are an example of

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

CNS

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

NT/ Hormones

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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