# research methods

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• Created by: Zayn101
• Created on: 05-05-16 19:24
Aim
The researcher’s area of interest – what they are looking at
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Concurrent validity
Comparing a new test with another test of the same thing to see if they produce similar results. If they do then the new test has concurrent validity
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Confounding variable
An extraneous variable that varies systematically with the IV so we cannot be sure of the true source of the change to the DV
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Correlational analysis
A mathematical technique where the researcher looks to see whether scores for two covariables are related
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Counterbalancing
A way of trying to control for order effects in a repeated measures design,
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Critical value
The value that a test statistic must reach in order for the hypothesis to be accepted.
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Demand characteristics
Occur when participants try to make sense of the research situation they are in and try to guess the purpose of the research or try to present themselves in a good way.
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Directional hypothesis
A one-tailed hypothesis that states the direction of the difference or relationship (e.g. boys are more helpful than girls).
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Dispersion measure
A dispersion measure shows how a set of data is spread out, examples are the range and the standard deviation
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Ecological validity
The extent to which the findings of a research study are able to be generalized to real-life settings
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External validity
Whether it is possible to generalise the results beyond the experimental setting.
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Extraneous variable
Variables that if not controlled may affect the DV and provide a false impression than an IV has produced changes when it hasn’t.
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Field experiment
An experiment that takes place in a natural setting where the experimenter manipulates the IV and measures the DV
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Independent groups design
An experimental design where each participants only takes part in one condition of the IV
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Inferential statistics
Inferential statistics are ways of analyzing data using statistical tests that allow the researcher to make conclusions about whether a hypothesis was supported by the results.
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Internal validity
In relation to experiments, whether the results were due to the manipulation of the IV rather than other factors such as extraneous variables or demand characteristics.
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Matched pairs design
An experimental design where pairs of participants are matched on important characteristics and one member allocated to each condition of the IV
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Measures of central tendency
A measurement of data that indicates where the middle of the information lies e.g. mean, median or mode
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Meta-analysis
A technique where rather than conducting new research with participants, the researchers examine the results of several studies that have already been conducted
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Natural experiment
An experiment where the change in the IV already exists rather than being manipulated by the experimenter
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Non-directional hypothesis
A two-tailed hypothesis that does not predict the direction of the difference or relationship
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Normal distribution
An arrangement of a data that is symmetrical and forms a bell shaped pattern where the mean, median and mode all fall in the centre at the highest peak
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Operationalising variables
This means clearly describing the variables (IV and DV) in terms of how they will be manipulated (IV) or measured (DV).
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Order effects
Order effects can occur in a repeated measures design and refers to how the positioning of tasks influences the outcome e.g. practice effect or boredom effect on second task
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Peer review
Before going to publication, a research report is sent other psychologists who are knowledgeable in the research topic for them to review the study, and check for any problems
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Quasi experiment
An experiment often conducted in controlled conditions where the IV simply exists so there can be no random allocation to the conditions
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Repeated measures design
An experimental design where each participants takes part in both/all conditions of the IV
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Retrospective consent
Once the true nature of the research has been revealed, participants should be given the right to withdraw their data if they are not happy.
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Social desirability bias
Participants’ behaviour is distorted as they modify this in order to be seen in a positive light.
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Standard deviation
A measure of the average spread of scores around the mean. The greater the standard deviation the more spread out the scores are.
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Standardised instructions
The instructions given to each participant are kept identical – to help prevent experimenter bias.
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## Other cards in this set

### Card 2

#### Front

Comparing a new test with another test of the same thing to see if they produce similar results. If they do then the new test has concurrent validity

#### Back

Concurrent validity

### Card 3

#### Front

An extraneous variable that varies systematically with the IV so we cannot be sure of the true source of the change to the DV

### Card 4

#### Front

A mathematical technique where the researcher looks to see whether scores for two covariables are related

### Card 5

#### Front

A way of trying to control for order effects in a repeated measures design,