Research Methods

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  • Created by: emmaxjmw
  • Created on: 01-05-16 16:16
Time Sampling
Taking note of behaviour which occurs during a certain time frame (e.g. The first minute of every 10 minutes)
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Event Sampling
Making a tally of each time certain behaviours occur
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Correlational Analysis
Analysing 2 pieces of information to find a link between them. (1=Perfect positive, 0=No correlation, -1=Perfect negative)
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Ethical Guidelines
Consider everyone, Informed consent, Do not decieve, Right to withdraw, Confidentiality, Debrief, Protect from harm, Privacy
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One Tailed/Directional Hypothesis
Stating that there will be a specific difference between the two conditions
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Two Tailed/Non-Directional Hypothesis
Stating that there will be a difference between the conditions, but not what it will be
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Null Hypothesis
Stating that there will be no difference between the conditions
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Lab Experiment
An experiment which is conducted in an artificial environment
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Lab Experiment Strength
High control over Extraneous Variables
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Lab Experiment Weakness
Lacks ecological validity
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Feild Experiment
The independent variable is manipulated in a natural environment
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Feild Experiment Strength
High in ecological validity and mundane realism
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Feild Experiment Weakness
Low control over Extraneous Variables
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Online Experiment
Studies conducted using the internet
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Online Experiment Strength
Thousands of responses can be quickly recieved
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Online Experiment Weakness
Limits the sample to people who can afford/have access to the internet
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Quasi Experiment
The Independent Variable is not manipulated by the investigator as it would be unethical, impossible or inconvenient
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Quasi Experiment Strength
Gives oppertunity for research that otherwise wouldn't be carried out
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Quasi Experiment Weakness
Participants can not be randomly assigned to different conditions
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Experimental Design- Independent Groups
Participants are randomly allocated to conditions
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Experimental Design- Repeated Measures
All participants take part in all conditions
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Experimental Design- Matched Pairs
Participants in each condition are different, but matched on a variable (e.g. Age, height, sex, IQ etc)
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Order Effects- Fatigue
Participants in a Repeated Measures design don't do as well in the second condition because they're bored or tired of taking part in the study
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Order Effects- Practice
Participants in a Repeated Measures design do better in the second condition because they've practiced
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Counterbalencing
This is used to combat order effects by half of the participants doing condition one and then condition two, and the other half doing the conditions the other way around. This cancels out any Order Effects
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Internal Reliablity
How good is your test within itself? (Tested using the 'Split Half' test)
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External Reliability
If you did the test again, would you get the same results? (Tested using the 'Test, Retest, Compare' method)
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Internal Validity
Are you testing what you clain to be testing?
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External Validity
Can the reults be generalised to other people/places?
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Sampling Techniques- Random
Every member of the population has an equal chance of being selected
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Sampling Techniques- Stratified
Accurate ratio of categories of participants in a population. (E.g. 70 girls and 30 boys in a class=7 girls and 3 boys in a study)
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Sampling Techniques- Volunteer
Participants choose themselves to participate
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Sampling Techniques- Oppertunity
Selecting the participants based on the people who are most readily available at the time
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Sampling Techniques- Systematic
Choosing participants using a specific system (e.g. Every 10th pupil on a register)
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Sampling Techniques- Snowball
Original participants lead you to other suitable people
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Sampling Techniques- Quota
Preset percentages of groups in participants (e.g. 30% Muslims, 20% Christian, 25% Jewish, 25% No Religion)
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Making a tally of each time certain behaviours occur

Back

Event Sampling

Card 3

Front

Analysing 2 pieces of information to find a link between them. (1=Perfect positive, 0=No correlation, -1=Perfect negative)

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Consider everyone, Informed consent, Do not decieve, Right to withdraw, Confidentiality, Debrief, Protect from harm, Privacy

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Stating that there will be a specific difference between the two conditions

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

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