Research methods

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Empirical methods
Information gained through direct experience or experiment, not from beliefs
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Objectivity
Results must be collected with no observer bias, no external variables
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Replicability
Repeats must match with the original experiment especially with observations
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Theory construction
A theory must be built from the facts collected to give research meaning
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Hypothesis testing
Hypothesis are testable expectations, if no evidence is found the hypothesis must be edited.
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Lab study
Conducted in a highly controlled environment, high internal validity, reduced external validity.
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Field study
Study in natural environment,high external validity although some demand characteristics.
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Natural experiment
Observation of conditions already naturally occurring,
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Opportunity sampling
Whoever is closest, quick and easy but will be biased
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Volunteer sample
Advertise in the paper participants come forwards, biased sample
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Stratified and quota samples
The population is looked at in groups, the proportion of the population made of that group=proportion of sample. Stratified=random, quota=opertunity
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Random sample
Identify target population, randomly select participants.
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Snowball sampling
Identify 1 or 2 get them to direct you to more, good for hard to identify participants
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Type 1 error
False positive, accept H1 when we should accept H0
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Type 2 error
False negative, accept H0 when we should accept H1
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Chi squared
Nominal data, not correlational, data is independant, looking for difference or association
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Spearman Rho
Ordinal or above, correlational, two sets of data are from one person/thing
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Mann-Whitney U
Ordinal or above, not correlational and independent groups
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Wilcoxon
Ordinal or above, not correlational and repeated measures+matched pairs
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Descriptive stats
Measure of central tendency(mean, median mode); Measure of dispersion(range, SD);Graphs(bar chart, scatter graph)
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Inferential stats
Select, Justify, Conclusion
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Results must be collected with no observer bias, no external variables

Back

Objectivity

Card 3

Front

Repeats must match with the original experiment especially with observations

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

A theory must be built from the facts collected to give research meaning

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Hypothesis are testable expectations, if no evidence is found the hypothesis must be edited.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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