Research Methods

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What do you need to eliminate at the begining of the sign test?
The '=' signs
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How do you work out the value of S?
Find the most common sign & count how many times it comes up
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What is usually the probability value?
0.05
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What are the two types of hypothesis it could be?
One tailed or two tailed?
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How do you figure out the critical value?
The critical value table
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When do you reject the null and accept the alternate?
When S is smaller than the critical value
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When do you accept the null and reject the alternate?
When S is larger than the critical value
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What is the IV?
The variable that is manipulated
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What is the DV?
The variable that is measured
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What are extraneous variables?
Nusicance variables, e.g light, distractions
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Give an example of a confounding variable
IQ, Personality
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What are demand characteristics?
When PP's try to figure out the aim of the study
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What are investigator effects?
The effects of the investigators personality
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What is randomisation?
The use of chance in order to control the effects of bias
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What is standardisation?
The idea that all PP should be subject to the same environment, information & experience
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What are the 3 types of experimental design?
Independent groups, repeated measures, matched pairs
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What are the strengths of lab experiments?
High control over variables, high internal validity
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What is a field experiment?
When the IV is manipulated in a natural, more everyday setting
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What is a limitation of a field experiment?
Loss of control over varibalesl, ethical issues
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What is a natural experiment?
When the researcher takes advantage of a pre-existing IV
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What is a limitation of a natural experiment?
Naturally occuring event is rare, may not be able to replicate the study
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What is a Quasi experiment?
An experiment where the variables already exist e.g anxiety levels of phobic and non-phobic patients
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What is random sampling?
All members of target population are assigned a number, sample generated through lottery method
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What is systematic sampling?
Every nth member of the target population is organised into, for instance, alphabetical order, choose somebody every interval
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What is opportunity sampling?
Researchers talk to anyone who is willing and available
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What is voulenteer sampling?
PP's select themselves to be part of the sample, hence it is referred to as self-selection
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What are the 4 types of ethical issues?
Informed consent, deception, protection from harm, privacy and confidentiality
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What is debriefing?
Explaining to the PP that they were involved in a study and what it entailed
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What is a pilot study?
A small scale version of an investigation that occurs before the real investigation takes place
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What is a single-blind procedure?
The scientist knows what is going on but not the PP
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What is a double-blind procedure?
Where neither the scientist or pp know whats going on
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What are the 3 observational techniques?
Naturalistic & controlled, Covert&Overt, Participant&Non-Participant
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What are the types of observational design?
Structured&Unstructured, Behavioural catagories, Sampling methods
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What are the 2 types of self-report techniques?
Questionnaires & Interviews
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What are the 3 different types of interviews?
Structured, unstructured, semi-structured
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What is a likert scale?
A scale ranging from strongly agree to strongly disagree
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What does a correlation measure?
A relationship between 2 variables
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What is the difference between a correlation and an experiment?
In an experiment the research manipulates the IV to measue the effect on the IV. In a correlation there is no manipulation of 1 variable
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What is a limitation of correlations?
Doesn't explain cause & effect
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What is Qualatitive Data?
Data that is expressed in words
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What is Quantitative data?
Data that can be counted, usually given in numbers
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What is primary data?
Information that has been obtained first-hand
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What is secondary data?
Information that has been collected by somebody else
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What is standard deviation?
How far something deviates from the mean
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What type of data does a bar chart show?
Discrete
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What type of data does a histogram show?
Continuous
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What are the main aims of peer review?
Alocate research funding, validate the quality and relevence of reseach, to suggest amendments or improvements
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Card 2

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How do you work out the value of S?

Back

Find the most common sign & count how many times it comes up

Card 3

Front

What is usually the probability value?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are the two types of hypothesis it could be?

Back

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Card 5

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How do you figure out the critical value?

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