Research methods

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  • Created by: Laelle
  • Created on: 29-03-16 18:37
What do experiments establish?
Cause and effect, by manipulating the independent variable and recording the effect on the dependent variable whilst keeping all other variables the same
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Lab experiment
An experiment that takes place in a highly controlled setting, where the researcher manipulates the IV and records the effect on the DV. Whilst controlling extraneous variables
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Field experiment
An experiment that takes place in a more natural, everyday setting, where the researcher manipulates the IV and records the effect on the DV
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Natural experiment
The researcher takes advantage of a pre-existing IV. Change in the IV would occur without the researcher. The researcher records the effect on the DV
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3 types of observation techniques
Naturalistic, controlled, participant
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Naturalistic observation
Behaviour is observed + recorded in a setting where it would naturally occur
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Controlled observation
Behaviour is observed + recorded in a structured environment, where some extraneous variables are controlled
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Participant observation
When the researcher becomes a part of the group being studied
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Covert observations
Where the participant is unaware that they're the focus of the study. They're observed in secret/from a distance
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Overt observations
Where the participant is aware that they're being observed and have given informed consent
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Self-report questionnaires
Participant is presented with a list of questions (closed or open) to assess their thoughts and feelings
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Open questions
No fixed answers and produces qualitative data that is detailed but difficult to analyse
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Closed questions
Fixed answers and produces quantitative data that is less detailed but easy to analyse
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Self-report interviews
Face to face interaction (or over the phone) between interviewer and interviewee; where the interviewee is asked a series of questions to assess their thoughts and feelings
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Structured interview
Interviewee is asked a pre-determined set of questions in a fixed order
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Unstructured interview
A free flowing interaction where a certain topic is discussed. The interviewee is encourage and prompted to expand and elaborate on answers
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Semi-structured interview
Interviewee is asked a series of pre-determined questions, but the interviewer also asks follow-up questions when appropriate
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Correlations
Mathematical technique that investigates the relationship between 2 or more co-variables. It's plotted on a scatter diagram
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Co-variables
The variables that are investigated to see how strongly they relate, rather than cause and effect (between IV and DV)
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Positive correlation
As one co-variable the increases the other also increases
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Negative correlation
As one co-variable increases the other decreases
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Zero correlation
When there is no relationship between the co-variables
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Example of positive correlation
As the no. of people in a room increase, the noise increases
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Example of negative correlation
As the no. of people in a room increase, the amount of space decreases
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How do correlations differ from experiments?
They don't establish cause and effect as there is no manipulation a variable. Instead they investigation relationships between co-variables.
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What does experimental design mean?
How the testing of participants is organised
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Repeated measures
The same participants are used in each condition of an experiment
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Independent measure/groups
Different participants are used in each condition of an experiment
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Matched pairs
Similar but different participants are used in each condition in an experiment. The participants are matched according to significant characteristics that may affect their performance.
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Aim
A general statement of what the researcher is intending to investigate; the purpose of the study
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Hypothesis
A clear and precise statement predicting what will happen in the investigation- stating the relationship between the variables
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Directional hypothesis
The difference between the conditions that is expected is made clear
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What kinds of words do directional hypotheses use?
More or less, higher or lower, faster or slower
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Non-directional hypothesis
States that there is a difference between the conditions, but the direction is not specified
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Example of a directional hypothesis
Those who drink energy drinks are MORE talkative than those who dont
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Example of a non-directional hypothesis
Those who drink energy drinks DIFFER in talkativeness than those who don't
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What is an operationalised hypothesis?
One that has measurable/testable and specific variables
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Independent variable
The variable that is manipulated/changed, so the effect on the dependent variable can be measured
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Dependent variable
The variable that the researcher measures. Any effect on the DV should be caused by the IV
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

An experiment that takes place in a highly controlled setting, where the researcher manipulates the IV and records the effect on the DV. Whilst controlling extraneous variables

Back

Lab experiment

Card 3

Front

An experiment that takes place in a more natural, everyday setting, where the researcher manipulates the IV and records the effect on the DV

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

The researcher takes advantage of a pre-existing IV. Change in the IV would occur without the researcher. The researcher records the effect on the DV

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Naturalistic, controlled, participant

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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