Research methods

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What are demand characteristics?
When a participant tries to figure out the aim of a study and act how they think they should for the task
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What is external validity?
The extent to which research is generalisable beyond the experimental setting
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What is internal validity?
The extent to whether you measured what you intended to
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What is reliability?
Consitency of the experiment, both internal and external
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What is the matched pairs design?
Participants matched by extraneous variables eq gender and age
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What is the independent groups design?
2 different groups of participants used in one experiment, each of the groups take part in 1 condition of IV
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What is the repeated measures design?
Each participant is exposed to every condition of IV
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What is counter balancing?
Technique used with repeated measures design to get rid of order effects. Group is split into 2; one group does 1 and A while the others do 1 and B, to prevent skewing the data
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What is opportunity sampling?
When experimenter chooses participants who are around
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What is volunteer sampling?
When people volunteer for research
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What is random sampling?
Sample chosen at random from the target population
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What is stratified/quota sampling?
When the sample is chosen to represent the target population, by looking at the largest populations mix of ag, gender, ethnicity
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What is an independent variable?
A variable which is manipulated in order to determine its effect on the dependent variable
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What is the dependent variable?
What is measured within the experiment and is affected by the independent variable
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What is a case study?
A real life study of individuals which can't be generalised because the variables aren't controlled
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What is a correlation?
Relationship between 2 variables that can not be manipulated
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What is a pilot study?
A smaller study done prior to the study to see whether there are any issues that need altering
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What are measures on central tendencies?
They inform us about middle values or averages of a set of data
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What are examples of measures of central tendencies?
Mean, median, mode
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What is measures of dispersion?
Shows how the data is spread across numbers
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What is an example of measures of dispersion?
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What is social desirablilty bias?
When the participant lies or alters their behaviour to look good or be accepted
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Card 2


What is external validity?


The extent to which research is generalisable beyond the experimental setting

Card 3


What is internal validity?


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Card 4


What is reliability?


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Card 5


What is the matched pairs design?


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