Research Methods

Aim
A general expression of what the research intends to investigate.
1 of 85
Hypothesis
A statement of what the researcher believes to be true.
2 of 85
Directional Hypothesis
States whether changes are greater or lesser, etc.
3 of 85
Non-Directional Hypothesis
Doesn't state the direction, just that there is a difference.
4 of 85
Experimental Method
A researcher causes the IV to vary and records the effect on the DV.
5 of 85
Extraneous Variables
Nuisance variables that do not vary systematically with the IV.
6 of 85
Confounding Variables
Change systematically with the IV.
7 of 85
Demand Characteristics
Any cue from the researcher or research situation that may reveal the aim of the study.
8 of 85
Investigator Effects
Any effect of the investigator's behaviour on the DV.
9 of 85
Randomisation
The use of chance when designing investigations to control for the effects of bias.
10 of 85
Standardisation
Using exactly the same formalised procedures for all participants.
11 of 85
Control Groups
Used for the purpose of setting a comparison. Help establish causation
12 of 85
Single Blind
A participant doesn't know the aim of the study so that demand characteristics are reduced.
13 of 85
Double Blind
Both participant and researcher don't know the aims of the study to reduce demand characteristics and investigator effects
14 of 85
Independent Groups
One group do condition A and a second group do condition B. Participants should be randomly allocated to experimental groups.
15 of 85
Repeated Measures
Same participants take part in all conditions of the experiment.
16 of 85
Matched Pairs
Two groups of participants are used but they are also related to each other by being paired on participant variables that matter for the experiment.
17 of 85
Laboratory Experiment
A controlled environment where extraneous and confounding variables can be controlled. Participants go to researcher. The IV is manipulated and the effect on the DV is recorded.
18 of 85
Field Experiment
A natural setting. The researcher goes to participants. The IV is manipulated and the effect on the DV is recorded.
19 of 85
Natural Experiment
The experimenter does not manipulate the IV. The IV would have varied even if the experimenter wasn't interested.
20 of 85
Quasi-Experiment
IV is based on a pre-existing difference between people. No one has manipulated the variable, it simply exists.
21 of 85
Population
The large group of people that a researcher is interested in studying.
22 of 85
Sample
A smaller group selected using the target population
23 of 85
Generalisation
The sample should be representative so generalisations can be made.
24 of 85
Bias
Certain groups may be over or under-represented.
25 of 85
Opportunity Sample
Using people who are simply most available.
26 of 85
Volunteer Sample
Participants select themselves.
27 of 85
Random Sample
Every person in the target population has an equal chance of being selected,
28 of 85
Systematic Sample
Participants are selected using a set 'pattern', i.e. every nth person is selected from the target population
29 of 85
Stratified Sample
Participants are selected according to their frequency in the target population (using strata).
30 of 85
Informed Consent
Participants should be able to make an informed judgement about whether to take part.
31 of 85
Deception
Deliberately misleading or withholding information so consent is not informed.
32 of 85
Protection from Harm
Participants should be at no more risk than they would be in everyday life.
33 of 85
Privacy/Confidentiality
We have the right to control information about ourselves. If this is invaded, confidentiality should be respected.
34 of 85
Correlation
Illustrates the strength and direction of an association between two co-variables.
35 of 85
Scattergram
Correlations are plotted on a scattergram.
36 of 85
Positive Correlation
Co-variables rise or fall together.
37 of 85
Negative Correlation
One co-variable rises and the other falls
38 of 85
Zero Correlation
No relationship between the two variables.
39 of 85
Observation
A way of seeing or listening to what people do without having to ask them.
40 of 85
Naturalistic Observation
Takes place where the target behaviour would normally occur.
41 of 85
Controlled Observation
Some control/manipulation of variables including control of EVs.
42 of 85
Covert Observation
Participants are unaware of being studied.
43 of 85
Overt Observation
Participants are aware of being studied.
44 of 85
Participant Observation
When the researcher becomes part of the group they are studying.
45 of 85
Non-Participant Observation
When the researcher remains separate from the group they are studying.
46 of 85
Behavioural Categories
The target behaviour to be observed should be broken up into a set of observable categories.
47 of 85
Time Sampling
Observations are made at regular intervals.
48 of 85
Event Sampling
A target/behaviour is recorded every time it occurs.
49 of 85
Questionnaires
A pre-set list of written questions to which a participant responds.
50 of 85
Closed Questions
Respondent has limited choices. Data are quantative
51 of 85
Open Questions
Respondents provide their own answers expressed in words. Data are qualitative.
52 of 85
Interviews
Face-to-face interaction between an interview and interviewee.
53 of 85
Structured Interview
List of pre-determined questions asked in a fixed order.
54 of 85
Unstructured Interview
There are no set questions. There is a general topic to be discussed but the interaction is free-flowing and the interviewee is encouraged to elaborate,
55 of 85
Semi-structured Interview
List of questions that have been worked out in advance but interviewers are free to ask follow-up questions when appropriate.
56 of 85
Pilot Study
A small-scale trial run of a research design before doing the real thing.
57 of 85
Quantitative Data
Numerical data
58 of 85
Qualitative Data
Non-numerical data expressed in words
59 of 85
Primary Data
'First hand' data collected for the purpose of the investigation
60 of 85
Secondary Data
Collected by someone other than the person who is conducting the research
61 of 85
Meta-analysis
A type of secondary data that involves combining data from a large number of studies.
62 of 85
Mean
Arithmetic average, add up all the scores and divide by the number of scores.
63 of 85
Median
Middle value, place scores in ascending order and select middle value. If there are two values in the middle, mean of these is calculated.
64 of 85
Mode
Most frequent or common value, used with categorical/numerical data.
65 of 85
Range
The difference between highest to lowest value.
66 of 85
Standard Deviation
Measure of the average spread around the mean. The larger the standard deviation, the more spread out the data are.
67 of 85
Tables
Raw scores displayed in columns and rows
68 of 85
Bar Chart
Categories are placed along the x-axis and frequency on the y-axis. The height of each column represents the frequency.
69 of 85
Histogram
Bars touch each other - data is continuous rather than discrete. There is a true zero.
70 of 85
Line Graph
Frequency on one axis, data on the other axis is continuous. The line often shows how something changes.
71 of 85
Scattergram
Used for correlational analysis. Each dot represents one pair of related data. The data on both axis must be continuous
72 of 85
Normal Distributions
Symmetrical, bell-shaped curve. Most people are in the middle area of the curve with very few at the extreme ends,
73 of 85
Skewed Distributions
Distributions that lean to one side or the other because most people are either at the lower or upper end of the distribution.
74 of 85
Negative Skew
Most of the distribution is concentrated towards the right of the graph, resulting in a long tail on the left.
75 of 85
Positive Skew
Most of the distribution is concentrated towards the left of the graph, resulting in a long tail on the right.
76 of 85
Percentages
Divide by 100
77 of 85
Ratios
Expressed as part-to-part ratios or part-to-whole ratios. Should always be the lowest common denominator.
78 of 85
Decimal places
Number of digits to the right of the decimal point.
79 of 85
Significant Figures
When many numbers come after a decimal point, this may be rounded off to 1, 2 or 3 significant figures.
80 of 85
Standard Form
A way of expressing very large or very small numbers.
81 of 85
Statistical Testing
To find out if a difference/association is significant we need to use a statistical test.
82 of 85
The Sign Test
Used to analyse the difference in scores between related items.
83 of 85
Peer Review
All aspects of the investigation are scrutinised by experts in the field. They should be objective and unknown to the researcher
84 of 85
Psychology and the Economy
The findings of psychological research can benefit our economic prosperity.
85 of 85

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

A statement of what the researcher believes to be true.

Back

Hypothesis

Card 3

Front

States whether changes are greater or lesser, etc.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Doesn't state the direction, just that there is a difference.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

A researcher causes the IV to vary and records the effect on the DV.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Psychology resources:

See all Psychology resources »See all Research methods and techniques resources »