Research Methods

Informed consent
Tell P's aims and expectations, allow them to aks q's, happy to continue, right to withdraw
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Protection from harm
Shouldn't cause more harm than real life, debrief, available counselling
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Securely kept, no personal data, anonymous
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explain full aims, debrief
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Lab experiment
EV's controlled, CV's regulated, IV manipulated DV measured unnatural setting
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Lab experiment evaluation
+ Control EV's and CV's, + easy replicated, x lack generalisability, x demand characteristics
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Natural experiment
IV not manipulated, DV naturally occuring measured, natural setting
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Natural experiment evaluation
+ good ethics, + high external validity, x p's not random
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Field experiment
researchers goes to p's, IV manipulated, DV measured
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Field experiment evaluation
+ natural environment, + p's unaware, x control variables x ethical issues
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Quasi experiment
IV pre existing difference, DV naturally occuring
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Quasi experiment evaluation
+ high control, + comparisons can be made, x no random allocation, x p variables
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Independent groups
2 diff groups of p's in diff condition, must use random allocation
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Independent groups evaluation
+ fewer demand characteristics,+ no order effects, x high p variables, time consuming
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Repeated measures
1/2 p's do a+b 1/2 do b+a, counterbalance
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Repeated measures evaluation
+ order effects, + no p variables, + less time consuming, x demand characteristics
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Matched pairs
p's matched on relevant characteristics, one of each pair does each condition
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Matched pairs evaluation
+ less demand characteristics, + no order effects, + fewer p variables, x time consuming
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Extraneous variables
anything other than the IV that may have an effect on DV in both conditions
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Confounding variables
factor that only affect the DV in one condition
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Opportunity sampling
most available, + quick and convenient x inevitably biased
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Volunteer sampling
advertise + guarantee willing p's x biased volunteer and self representative
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Random sampling
by lottery, random allocation + unbiased, x time and effort
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Systematic sampling
every nth person from a list, + unbiased x time and effort
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Stratified sampling
selected according to frequency, + representative
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Open questionnaires
no fixed range of answers, free to answer qualitative x response bias
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Closed questionnaires
fixed answers numerical data, + cheap, easy x demand characteristics, limited usefulness
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Structured interviews
preset list of q's , + replicatable + less individual differences x can't elaborate
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Unstructured interviews
like a convo involving prompts + flexible, can elaborate x hard to anaylse, lacks validity
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Naturalistic observation
natural setting + high external validity x low control
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Controlled observation
controlled setting + replicable x low external validity
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Covert observation
p's don't know + low demand characteristics + high ecological validity x ethics
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Overt observation
p's aware + ethics x demand characteristics
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Participant observation
observer part of group + greater insight x loss of objective
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Non- participant observation
observer seperate + objective x loss of insight
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Behavioural categories
Target behaviour is tallied + qualitative data x difficult to make clear x chance of incomplete data
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Time and event sampling
Event target behaviour occurs + useful with infrequent event , time every 30 secs etc. x unrepresentative
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Shouldn't cause more harm than real life, debrief, available counselling


Protection from harm

Card 3


Securely kept, no personal data, anonymous


Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4


explain full aims, debrief


Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5


EV's controlled, CV's regulated, IV manipulated DV measured unnatural setting


Preview of the back of card 5
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