Research Methods

what are the advantages of independent measures design?
lowered chance of demand characteristics, no order effects
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what are the disadvantages of independent measures design?
high individual differences (solution= randomisation), more pps needed
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what are the advantages of repeated measures design?
no individual differences, less pps needed
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what are the disadvantages of repeated measures design?
higher chance of demand characteristics (solution= deception), order effects (solution= counterbalancing)
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what are the advantages of matched participant design? (matched pairs or matched group)
less individual differences, no order effects, lowered chance of demand characteristics
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what are the disadvantages of matched participant design?
complex and time consuming, matching completely is impossible
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what are the rules for writing a hypothesis?
1) there will be.. 2) significant/significantly 3) variables operationalised 4) DV comes before IV 5) tail sentence - due to chance or not due to chance
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what are the advantages of using a laboratory experiment?
most scientific, highly reliable
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what are the disadvantages of using a laboratory experiment?
lacks ecological validity, high demand characteristics
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what are the advantages of using a field experiment?
higher ecological validity, higher generalisability
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what are the disadvantages of using a field experiment?
loose control- lowers reliability, ethical issues (pps usually don't give consent)
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what are the advantages of using a quasi-experiment?
only way to study certain IVs, procedure often standardised- increases reliability
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what are the disadvantages of using a quasi-experiment?
IV not precise, could lead to labelling
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what are extraneous variables?
all possible variables that could influence the dependent variable, can be: situational, participant or researcher variables
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what are confounding variables?
extraneous variables which have influenced the dependent variable
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what are single blind and double blind trials?
single= pps don't know what condition they are in, double= pps and researchers don't know what condition they are in
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what is an advantage and disadvantage of a naturalistic observation?
adv: high ecological validity, dis: not replicable
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what is an advantage and disadvantage of a controlled observation?
adv: replicability, dis: low ecological validity
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what is an advantage and disadvantage of a participant observation?
adv: lower chance of demand characteristics, dis: ethical issues (deception) and bias
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what are advantages and disadvantages of a structured observation?
adv: reliable, can increase inter-observer reliability, dis: misses out on unplanned data, no flexibility
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what are advantages and disadvantages of an unstructured observation?
adv: beneficial where expected behaviour is not known, good for pilot study before experiment, dis: lowered reliability and replicability
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what are advantages and disadvantages of an overt observation?
adv: can be at close proximity, observe well with less errors, dis: demand characteristics and social desirability
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hat are advantages and disadvantages of a covert observation?
adv: lowered chance of demand characteristics and social desirability, dis: ethical issues (deception), difficult to record accurately while trying to hide
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hat are advantages and disadvantages of a non-participant observation?
adv: less researcher bias, dis: less likely to know finer details of the behaviour
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what are behavioural categories and the advantages and disadvantages?
behaviours that have been defined and are to be observed, adv: increases replicability, objectivity and measurability, dis: rigidity
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what is a coding frame?
detailed behavioural categories where symbols are used
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what is inter-observer reliability and how can it be increased?
having more than one observer recording the same behaviour/pp/time with a high level of agreement. Can be increased by training and pilot runs, replacement of any inconsistent observers and ensuring behavioural categories are not ambiguous
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what are advantages and disadvantages of event sampling?
adv: comparative picture between events, dis: potential to miss out on behaviour
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what are advantages and disadvantages of time sampling?
adv: more reliable recording, dis: time consuming, pps may move on in real life
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what are advantages and disadvantages of using a self-report method?
adv: quick and easy, pps can give info about themselves from the past, dis: demand characteristics/social desirability, highly influenced by mood/state of pps at the time
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what are advantages and disadvantages of a structured interview?
adv: reliable and comparable, dis: rigid, potential to miss out on information
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what are advantages and disadvantages of an unstructured interview?
adv: valid and can be most appropriate in some situations, dis: less reliable
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what are advantages and disadvantages of open questions?
adv: rich and valid information, dis: pps may deviate, difficult to compare
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what are advantages and disadvantages of closed questions?
adv: easy to analyse and compare, generates quantitative data, dis: limited information can be given, less valid
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what is participant acquiescence and response set?
response set= pp sets/chooses one end of a rating scale and responds on that end, acquiescence= tendency for pps to agree with everything
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what are advantages and disadvantages of correlation?
adv: tells us relationship, good for pilot study before expensive experiment, dis: cannot establish cause-effect, can be complex to interpret
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what are type 1 and type 2 errors?
type 1= false positive, rejection of null hypothesis when it should be accepted, type 2= false negative, accepting null hypothesis when it should be rejected
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what inferential statistics require the test value to be higher than the critical value?
chi-squared, spearman's rho
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what inferential statistics require the test value to be lower than the critical value?
sign test, mann whitney u, wilcoxin
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how would you calculate standard deviation?
1) calculate the mean for each condition 2) for each pp, subtract the mean from their score (d) 3) square this value (d²) 4) calculate the mean of the values of d² to get the variance 5) square root the variance for each data set
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how would you carry out the chi-squared test?
1) add totals for each column and row 2) work out the expected frequencies 3) find the degrees of freedom (rows-1) X (columns-1) 4) calculate chi-squared using formula
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how would you carry out the sign test?
1) N= number of pps (minus those who scored the same in both ) 2) if pp scored higher in condition A give it a plus sign, if higher in B give it a minus sign 3) count the least frequent sign - this becomes your test value
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how would you carry out the Mann Whitney U test?
1) rank the data 2) N1= number of pps in smallest group, N2= number of pps in largest group, R= total of ranks in smallest group 3) calculate U1 and U2 4) take the smallest U value as your test value
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how would you carry out the Wilcoxin test?
1) discard pps who scored the same 2) work out the differences between the scores of each pp 3) rank the differences 4) add up all the ranks for those who did best in each condition 5) the smallest of these figures becomes the test value
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how would you carry out Spearman's rho?
1) rank each data set individually 2) calculate the difference between each pair of ranks (d) and square this (d²) 3) calculate the value using the formula
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what are the sections and subsections of a practical report?
Title, Abstract (brief summary), Introduction (includes background, outline of topic and aim and hypothesis), Method (design, sample, materials, procedure), Results, Discussion, References, Appendices
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what is snowball sampling?
the researcher will find one pp and, once they have been studied, they will ask if they know anyone in the same situation who may be interested in taking part
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what are advantages and disadvantages of a snowball sample?
adv: useful in obtaining a sample of difficult to locate people, dis: biased sample, often all pps will have similar characteristics
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what are advantages and disadvantages of a random sample?
adv: no researcher bias as they cannot influence who they ask, dis: they could, by chance, have an unrepresentative sample e.g. by picking out all males
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what are advantages and disadvantages of an opportunity sample?
adv: access to large numbers of easy-to-access pps, dis: can be a biased sample, unrepresentative
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what are advantages and disadvantages of a self-selected sample?
adv: you can rely on the pps more to take part in a lengthy study if they signed up for it in the first place, dis: may be unrepresentative, there may be certain characteristics about people who volunteer
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what is construct validity?
refers to how well a test or tool measures the construct that it was designed to measure
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what is nominal data?
categories of behaviour and how often they occur, however it doesn't tell us the behaviour for each participant individually
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what is ordinal data?
individual data which shows which pp did the behaviour most or least and indicates the position of a pp in the group. The gap between the rating points is not equal and it can't show how much of a gap there is between each pp
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what is interval data?
has equal intervals, the data gives order and shows how much difference there is between each interval
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what is ratio data?
data with a true zero such as time
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what is peer review and its importance?
process of subjecting research methods and findings to the scrutiny of others who are experts in the same field
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what is the split half method of testing internal validity?
test one half of the questions and gain a score and then the other half of the questions to see if the same level of score was achieved on both halves. The results should be consistent and therefore prove the test to be reliable
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what is the test-retest method of testing external reliability?
to see if the same results are achieved, the same results on a retest will show external reliability
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what is included in a citation of academic references?
the author(s), date of publication, title, name of journal, volume, issue, page numbers
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Card 2

Front

what are the disadvantages of independent measures design?

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high individual differences (solution= randomisation), more pps needed

Card 3

Front

what are the advantages of repeated measures design?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

what are the disadvantages of repeated measures design?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

what are the advantages of matched participant design? (matched pairs or matched group)

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