# Research Methods

HideShow resource information
When to use spearman's Rho test
The hypothesis states a correlation between 2 variables; 2 sets of data are related; data is ordinal or interval.
1 of 49
When to use Chi-Square test
Hypothesis states a difference or association between variables; sets of data should be independent; data is nominal.
2 of 49
When to use Mann-Whitney U test
Hypothesis states a difference between 2 sets of data; 2 sets of data are from separate groups (independent groups); data is ordinal or interval.
3 of 49
When to use Wilcoxon test
Hypothesis states a difference between 2 sets of data; 2 sets of data are pairs of scores from 1 person (matched pairs)=related; Data is ordinal or interval.
4 of 49
Opportunity sample
Using those people who are most easily availbale; Easiest method to use but biased as sample drawn from small part of target population.
5 of 49
Volunteer sample
Participants selected by asking for volunteers; Access to variety of participantsm making sample more representative; BUT samples biased as participants likely to be motivated (volunteer bias).
6 of 49
Random sample
Selected from target population using random no. technique (e.g.names out of hat); Method potentialy unbiased as all members of target popul. have equal chance being selected, BUT biased if some refused to take part.
7 of 49
Stratified & Quota samples
Subgroups (strata) within popul. identified (e.g. different age groups). Then predetermined no. of participants taken from each subgroup in proportion to target popul.; Stratified sample done using random & quota sample done using opportunity sample.
8 of 49
Positive & Negatives of startified & quote samples
Method more representative than other methods as there is proportional representation of subgroups; BUT opportunity sampling may lead to bias.
9 of 49
Snowball sampling
Start with 1 or 2 people (e.g. with eating disorder) & ask them to direct you to some other people with same issue & so on; Useful when conducting research with participants who are not easy to identify; BUT prone to bias as limited section popul.
10 of 49
Pilot Study
A small-scale trial run of a research study to test any aspects of the design, with a view to making improvements in the main study.
11 of 49
Internal Reliability
A measure of the extent to which something is consistent within itself (e.g. all questions on an IQ test should be measuring the same thing).
12 of 49
External Reliability
A measure of consistency over several different occasions (e.g. same interview by same interviewer with same interviewee conducted 1 day & then again week later, outcome should be same otherwise interview not reliable).
13 of 49
Type 1 errors
Rejecting a null hypothesis that is true. More likely to happen if the significance level is too high (e.g. 10%).
14 of 49
Type 2 errors
Accepting a null hypothesis that is in fact not true. More likely to happen if the significance level is too low (e.g. 1%).
15 of 49
Peer Review
Refers to the assessment of scientific work by others who are experts in the same field; The intention is to ensure that any research conducted & published is of high quality; Helps ensure poor quality research isn't publiahed;.
16 of 49
Independent Variable (IV)
An event that is directly manipulated by an experimenter in order to test its effect on another variable (DV).
17 of 49
Dependent Variable (DV)
A measurable outcome of the action of the IV in an experiment.
18 of 49
Ethical issues
Informed consent; Deception; Right to withdraw; Protection from harm; Confidentiality;Privacy
19 of 49
How to deal with ethical issues
Debriefing (post-research interview, informs of true nature of study & restore to original state); Ethical committee (approve study); Ethical guidelines; Punishment (professional organisation punishes psychologists who break the code)
20 of 49
Ethical Guidelines
Respect (for dignity & worth of all persons, confidentiality, privacy & informed consent); Competence; Responsibility; Integrity
21 of 49
Internal Validity
Refers to whether the effects observed in a study are due to the manipulation of the independent variable and not some other factor; a causal relationship between the independent and dependent variable.
22 of 49
External Validity
Refers to the extent to which the results of a study can be generalized to other settings (ecological validity), other people (population validity) and over time (historical validity).
23 of 49
Empirical methods
Info is gained through direct observation or testing.
24 of 49
Objectivity
Scientists' expectations shoud not affect results; In order to achieve this research is conducted under controlled conditions; In an experiment the IV is controlled to demonstrate causal relationships.
25 of 49
Replicibility
Way to demonstratee the validity of any observation or experiment is to repeat it. If outcome same then results said to be reliable.
26 of 49
Theory construction
Facts alone are meaningless. Explanations or theories must be constructed tto make sense of the facts.
27 of 49
Hypothesis testing
Theories modified through process of hypothesis testing.
28 of 49
Laboratory experiment
Experiment conducted in a controlled environment. Tend to demonstrate high internal validity & low external validity.
29 of 49
Field experiment
A controlled experiment that is conducted outside a lab. The IV is still manipulated by the experimenter, & therefore causal relationships can be demonstarted.
30 of 49
Natural experiment
A research method in which the experimenter cannot manipulate the IV directly, but where it varies naturally, & the effect on a DV can be observed.
31 of 49
Repeated Measures
An experimental design where each participant takes part in every condition under test.
32 of 49
Independent groups
An experimental design where particiapnts are allocated to 2 (or more) groups representing different experimental conditions. Allocation is usually done using random technique.
33 of 49
Matched pairs design
An experimental design where pairs of participants are matched in terms of key variables, such as age & IQ. One member of each pair is placed in the experimental group & the other member in the control group.
34 of 49
Observational techniques
The application of systematic methods of observation in an observational study, experiment or other study.
35 of 49
Behavioural categories
Dividing a target behaviour (e.g. attachment) into a subset of behaviours. This can be done using a behaviour checklist or a coding system (a systematic method of recording observations in which individual behaviours given a code for ease recording).
36 of 49
Time sampling
An observational technique in which the observer records behaviours in a given time frame, e.g. noting what a target individual is doing every 30 seconds).
37 of 49
Event sampling
An observational technique in which a count is kept of the number of times a certain behaviour (or event) occurs.
38 of 49
Naturalistic observations
A research method carried out in a naturalistic setting, in which the investigator doesn't interfere in any way, but merely observes the behaviour(s) in questions (likely to involve the use of structured observations).
39 of 49
Controlled observations
A form of investigation in which behaviour is observed but under controlled conditons, as opposed to a naturalisic observation.
40 of 49
Correlational analysis
Determining the extent of a relationship between 2 variables.
41 of 49
Case Study
A research method that involves a detailed study of a single individual, institution or event.
42 of 49
Content analysis
A kind of observational study in which behaviour is observed indirectly in written or verbal material such as interviews, conversations, books, diaries or TV programmes.
43 of 49
Meta-analysis
A researcher looks at the findings from a number of different studies in order to reach a general conclusion about a particular hypothesis.
44 of 49
Null hypothesis
An assumption that there is no relationship (difference or association) in the population from which a sample is taken with respect to the variables being studies.
45 of 49
Alternative hypothesis
A testable statement about the relationship between two variables.
46 of 49
Ordinal data
Data are ordered in some way, e.g. lining up class in order of height. The 'difference' between each item is not the same.
47 of 49
Nominal data
The data are in separate categories, e.g. grouping class into people who are tall, medium or short.
48 of 49
Interval data
Data are measured using units of equal intervals, e.g. when counting correct answers or measuring your classmates' heights.
49 of 49

## Other cards in this set

### Card 2

#### Front

When to use Chi-Square test

#### Back

Hypothesis states a difference or association between variables; sets of data should be independent; data is nominal.

### Card 3

#### Front

When to use Mann-Whitney U test

### Card 4

#### Front

When to use Wilcoxon test

### Card 5

#### Front

Opportunity sample