Research Methods

  • Created by: urooj.x
  • Created on: 23-04-18 19:55
Hypothesis
A statement predicting what research results will show before it is carried out.
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Alternate Hypothesis
A statement that predicts a difference/correlation in results. (There will be a difference/correlation between...)
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Null Hypothesis
A statement that predicts no difference/correlation in results. (There will be a no difference/correlation between...)
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Independent Variable
Something the researcher changes / manipulates in an experiment
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Dependent Variable
Something that is measured in an experiment
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Cause & Effect
The process of one variable affection a change in another
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Co-variable
Something that changes in relation to another variable
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Extraneous Variable
A variable apart from IV that can affect the DV unless its controlled
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Standardisation
A way of controlling extraneous variable that keeps them the same across conditions
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Experimental Design
The way participants are assigned/allocated to conditions in an experiment
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Repeated Measures Design
An experimental design where the same participants take part in each condition
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Independent Measures Design
An experimental design where different participants take part in each condition
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Order Effects
Factors that impact negatively on research findings because participants follow the same order of conditions in an experiment
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Sample
A group selected from a large population to take part in the research
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Representative
An accurate reflection of a larger group
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Generalisability
The ability to draw conclusions that apply to a larger group outside of the research
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Sampling Method
A technique for selecting participants from a population
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Random Sampling
A sample selected where everyone has an equal chance of being selected e.g 'Pick name out of a hat'
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Opportunity Sampling
A sample selected by convenience (people that are available at the time)
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Self Selected Sampling
A sample selected through volunteers
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Consent
When a person agrees to being studied or agrees on someone elses behalf
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Deception
An ethical issue that relates to protecting participants from distress,discomfort and embarrassment after an experiment e.g counseling
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Lack of informed consent
An ethical issue that relates to participants agreeing to take part in research knowing what the research is about
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Debriefing
A way of dealing with ethical issues at the end of research including an explanation of the study
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Right to withdraw
A way of dealing with ethical issues by ensuring participants know they can opt out of or exit a study at any time
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Confidentiality
A way of dealing with ethical issues by ensuring that participants are not identifiable through the use of names or other types of personal information
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Experiment
A method of collecting data which measures the effect of an IV or DV by controlling other variables
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Interview
A method of collecting data that involves directly questioning people
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Questionare
A method of collecting data that involves people answering a series of pre-determined questions
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Case Study
A method of collecting data that involves focusing on a small sample in detail
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Correlation
A method of analysis that looks for a relationship between two variable
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Lab Experiment
Where an IV is manipulated in a controlled environment to test its affect on a DV e.g controlling noise,temperature
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Field Experiment
Where an IV is manipulated in a natural environment to test its effect on a DV e.g school, shopping centre
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Natural Experiment
Where an IV is not directly controlled by the experimenter but its effect on a DV
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Structured Interview
An interview with pre-determined questions
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Unstructured Interview
An interview where questions vary depending on the interviewee's responses
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Closed Questions
Questions which have set responses to choose from
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Open Questions
Questions that have no fixed answer so participants can respond with more detail
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Naturalistic Observation
Observing people in a real-life setting e.g classroom
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Controlled Observation
Observing people in a environment that has been set up in some way
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Overt Observation
Observing people with them knowing e.g school inspection
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Covert Observation
Observing people without them knowing (undercover, disguised)
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Participant Observation
Observing people while also taking part in their activities
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Non - participant Observation
Observing people from a distance without taking part
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Qualitative Data
Descriptive Data
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Quantitative Data
Numerical Data
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Positive Correlation
When 2 variable travel in the same direction e.g the more you revise the higher grades you acheive
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Negative Correlation
When 2 variables travel in opposite direction e.g the more coffee you drink the less sleep you get
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No Correlation
When 2 variables show no relationship
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Correlation Coefficent
A score that measures the strength and the direction of the relationship between 2 co -variables
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Primary Data
Information collected first hand
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Secondary Data
Information used but collected from another person (second hand)
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Measure of Central Tendency
An average taken form a set data
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Normal Distribution
Where data is distributed so that if follows a symmetrical 'bell shaped' curve with middle scores being the most frequent
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Skewed Distribution
Where data has an asymmetric distribution because scores are clustered towards one of the extremes
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Estimation
A process where we roughly calculate or judge a value, quantity or pattern in data
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Reliability
A measure of how consistent or replicable something is
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Validity
A measure of how true or accurate something is
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Internal Reliability
Where a measure is consistent within itself
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External Reliability
Where a measure is consistent beyond itself or another occasion
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Inter-rater Reliability
Where 2 or more researchers agree on a set of results
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Ecological Validity
How far a research setting mirrors real-life
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Construct Validity
How far a variable is measured in relation to the whole concept
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Population Validity
How far a sample represents the target population
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Demand Characteristics
Cues from the procedure that suggests what the research is about
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Observer Effect
The effect on behavior when people know they are being observed
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Social Desirability
The pressure to respond to questions in a way that is expected or acceptable
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Bias
When certain types of people are over-represented while others are under-represented
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Experimenter Bias
To favour one theory over another when conducting research
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Bias in Questioning
To phrase a question to support one view more than another. e.g leading questions
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

A statement that predicts a difference/correlation in results. (There will be a difference/correlation between...)

Back

Alternate Hypothesis

Card 3

Front

A statement that predicts no difference/correlation in results. (There will be a no difference/correlation between...)

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Something the researcher changes / manipulates in an experiment

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Something that is measured in an experiment

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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