Research Methods

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One-Tailed (Directional) Hypothesis
Predicts a difference between the groups in your experiment; it also predicts which group will do better
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Two-Tailed (Non-Directional) Hypothesis
Predicts a difference but does not say which group will do better. It simply states there is a difference
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Variable
Anything within a study that changes
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Independant Variable
The variable that is directly manipulated
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Dependant Variable
The result of the change
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Operationalisation
How the dependant variable is measured
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Extraneous Variable
Any variable, other than the IV, which may potentially affect the DV
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Environmental/Situational Factors
Anything about the environment which might affect their performance
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Lack of Standardisation within a procedure
Different groups experience different instructions, are given different stimuli etc
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Participant Variables
Anything specific to the individual which might influence the study
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Demand Charcteristics
Participants form an idea about the purpose of the study, they may show responses to please the researcher
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Researcher Bias
Researchers' expectations can influence how they design their study and behave towards participants
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Laboratory Experiment
Controls all relevant variables except for the IV. Take place in a specially designed environments where variables can be easily controlled
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Field Experiment
Behaviour is measured in a natural environment. Ppts are often unaware they are in an experiment
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Quasi Experiment
Takes advantage of the fact that a variable of interest (IV) varies naturally. Can be both lab or field
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Two-Tailed (Non-Directional) Hypothesis

Back

Predicts a difference but does not say which group will do better. It simply states there is a difference

Card 3

Front

Variable

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Independant Variable

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Dependant Variable

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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