Reproduction and inheritance

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  • Created by: Ellie
  • Created on: 17-04-13 21:57
What is sexual reproduction?
where 2 gametes fuse to create an offspring
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What is Asexual reproduction?
it involves one parent fertilising its self
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Why does a plant have petals?
They attract the insect
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What does the anther do?
Make pollen (male)
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What does the stigma do?
Receives pollen (female)
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What is pollen?
the male gamete
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what does the nectary do?
it makes nectar to attract the insect
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What are the characteristics of a wind pollinated plant?
Anthers are large and outside, Stigma is large and outside, no nectary and pollen is made in large amounts
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What are the characteristics of an insect pollinated plant?
Anthers and stigma are small and inside. Large colourful petals and it has a nectary.
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Define pollination
The spreading of pollen from the anther of one flower to the stigma of another flower of the same species.
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When fertilised what happens to the plant?
Its petals die, Ovule turns into a seed, Ovary may fill with sugars to make a fruit
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What is a natural method of asexual reproduction?
using runners - when a root from a plant grows two shoots
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What is an artificial method of asexual reproduction?
Cuttings - cut a branch from one plant and stick it on another
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What happens to the zygote when fertilisation has occurred?
It divides by Mitosis to become an embryo
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What is the role of placenta?
it brings the mother and babes blood supplies close together allowing diffusion of O2 glucose minerals CO2 urea and water
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How is the placenta adapted for diffusion?
large surface area, only a few cells thick, high concentration gradient
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What is the amnion?
a membrane sac that fills with amniotic fluids to protect the embryo
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During puberty what hormone do boys make and where?
Testosterone in their testes
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What does Testosterone make happen?
causes testes to drop, triggers sperm manufacture, growth of body hair, causes voice to deepen, causes muscle growth
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During puberty what hormone to girls make and where?
Oestrogen in their ovaries
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What does oestrogen cause?
triggers menstrulation, breast growth, growth of pubic and body hair
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What is the endometrium?
The uterus lining
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Why is FSH released in the menstural cycle?
to stop the release of eggs
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What does LH do?
Causes the egg to be released
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Where is the egg fertilised?
in the fallopian tube
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What is a corpus luteum?
and egg that hasn't been fertilised
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What makes progesterone?
The corpus luteum
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What is DNA?
a genetic code
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What is a gene?
One instruction in DNA telling us how to make a specific protein
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What is an allele?
A different version of a gene
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What is a chromosome?
coiled up DNA
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What is Haploid?
the number of different chromosomes in a cell (23 in a human)
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What is Diploid?
the total number of chromosomes in a cell (46 in a human)
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Describe Mitosis?
produces 2 daughter cells which are diploid and genetically identical to parent cells, occurs in one stage.
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When does Mitosis happen?
in growth repair and sexual reproduction
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Describe Meiosis?
produces 4 gametes, daughter cells are haploid and genetically different to parent cell, occurs in 2 stages.
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When does Meiosis happen?
in the production of gametes in sexual reproduction
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What is meant by a dominant allele?
An allele that will always affect the phenotype (shown in capital letters)
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What is meant by recessive allele?
an allele that never affects the phenotype in the presence of a dominant allele (lower case letter)
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What is meant by Codominant?
an allele that affects the phenotype equally in the presence of an other co dominant allele
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What is the phenotype?
physical appearance
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What is the genotype?
combination of alleles an individual posesses
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What is Heterozygous?
2 different alleles in the genotype
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What is homozygous?
Both alleles the same in the genotype
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What chromosomes do females have?
2 X chromosomes
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What chromosomes do males have?
an X and Y chromosome
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What causes variation?
the genotype, the environment
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is Asexual reproduction?

Back

it involves one parent fertilising its self

Card 3

Front

Why does a plant have petals?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What does the anther do?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What does the stigma do?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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