Reproduction

Sexual and asexual reproduction.

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What is sexual reproduction?
Sexual reproduction involves the fusion of male and female gametes. Because there are two parents, the offspring contain a mixture of their parents' genes.
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What is asexual reproduction?
In asexual reproduction, there is only one parent. There's no fusion of gametes, no mixing of chromosomes and no genetic variation between parent and offspring. The offspring are genetically identical to the parent - they're clones.
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In animals, what are the male and female gametes?
Egg and sperm.
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In humans, how many chromosomes does each gamete contain?
23 chromosomes - half the number of chromosomes in a normal cell; one of each chromosome.
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Why do the gametes contain this number of chromosomes?
So that when the egg and the sperm cell fuse together (fertilisation), they form a cell with the full number of chromosomes (half from the father, half from the mother).
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Why does the offspring inherit features from both parents?
It's received half of its chromosomes from its mum, and half from its dad.
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What does a mixture of genetic material produce in the offspring?
Variation.
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Describe the first step in asexual reproduction.
X-shaped chromosomes have two identical halves, so each chromosome splits down the middle to form two identical sets of 'half-chromosomes'.
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Describe the second step in asexual reproduction.
A membrane forms around each set of DNA strands (half-chromosomes).
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Describe the last step in asexual reproduction.
The DNA replicates itself to form two identical cells with complete sets of X-shaped chromosomes.
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How do plants and animals use asexual reproduction?
To grow and to produce replacement cells.
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How do organisms such as bacteria and certain plants use asexual reproduction?
To produce offspring.
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Is variation produced in the offspring as a result of asexual reproduction?
No.
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Card 2

Front

What is asexual reproduction?

Back

In asexual reproduction, there is only one parent. There's no fusion of gametes, no mixing of chromosomes and no genetic variation between parent and offspring. The offspring are genetically identical to the parent - they're clones.

Card 3

Front

In animals, what are the male and female gametes?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

In humans, how many chromosomes does each gamete contain?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Why do the gametes contain this number of chromosomes?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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