Renal System - AaP

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  • Created by: mark23jc
  • Created on: 11-05-16 15:38
What are the basic functions of the urinary tract?
Process blood plasma, Maintains homeostatic balance, Remove Urea (waste product of protein metabolism)
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What is the kidney surrounded with?
PERIRENAL FAT
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Where is the kidney located in terms of the abdominal wall?
Kidney is posterior abdominal wall and is Retroperitoneal
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Where is the kidney situated in relation to the stomach?
Behind it - posterior.
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Where is the kidney situated vertebral?
T12 - L2 --> Lower end of thoracic and upper end of lumbar.
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Which of the kidney is lower?
The right kidney is lower in humans due to the position of the liver.
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What is the structure of the ureters?
25cm Long, Smooth muscle lined with uroepithelium.
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What is the function of the ureters?
Peristalsis pump of urine into bladder. Blood supply
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What condition does the ureter need to meet in order for peristalsis pump to occur?
Pressure in bladder needs to be GREATER than the pressure in the kidney.
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What are some characteristics of the human kidney?
It is multipapillate --> fused cortex and divided medulla.
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How are blood supplied to the renal system?
Hilum of kidney transmits renal vein, artery &ureter. Pairedrenal arteries arise from aorta.
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What is the capillary involved in the blood supply of the kidneys?
Peritubular Capillaries
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Outline the Path of Urine Drainage.
Collecting duct --> Minor Calyx --> Renal Pelvis --> Ureter --> Urinary Bladder
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What is the functional unit of the kidney?
Nephron --> there are approx. 1M nephrons in each kidney.
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What are juxtamedullary nephrons?
They are next to the medulla
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True or false, within the Renal Corpuscle, blood enters the glomerulus via afferent arterioles and exits via efferent arterioles.
TRUE!
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How much of the cardiac output passes to the kidneys and how frequent are plasma volume filtered?
25% of cardiac output passes to kidneys. Every 30 minutes, the plasma volume is filtered.
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What kind of vessels run alongside the tubules?
Peritubular vessels.
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What is the function of the kidneys, renal pelvis and ureters?
Kidneys (Form the urine) , Renal pelvis (into which urine is drained) , Ureters (Carry urine to urinary bladder)
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What is the function of the bladder and urethra?
Bladder (Stores urine) , Urethra (tube between bladder and external environment).
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Where is the Nephron located?
Some of the nephron is in the renal cortex , the others are in the renal medulla.
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What is the difference between the the renal cortex and the renal medulla?
The renal cortex is more superficial than the renal medulla.
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What are the two components of the nephron?
Each nephron has two components --> Vasscular and Tubular.
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What is the purpose of the proximal convoluted tubule?
It is located in the cortex and is responsible for most reabsorption/secretion
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What is the purpose of bowman's capsule?
Encloses the glomerulus in the cortex and it's where filtration occurs.
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What is the loop of henle responsible for?
Located in the cortex / medulla and is responsible for osmotic gradient in the medulla
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How does the kidney control RBC number?
Controls vis erythropoetin
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How do you calculate excretion of the renal process?
Filtered + Secreted - Reabsorbed = Excreted
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Outline the basic Renal Process
Afferent arteriole --> Glomerular Capillaries --> Efferent arteriole --> Peritubular Capillaries --> Bowman's Capsule --> Tubule
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What is angiotensin?
Hormone that is generated via renin release from kidney. --> Stimulates Na+ reabsorption. It is released due to Blood pressure and Sodium content.
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What is Anti-Diuretic Hormon? (ADH)
Hormone released from posterior pituitary due to osmoreceptors in hypothalamus and volume receptors in the right atrium.
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What is aldosterone?
Released from adrenal cortex and stimulates Na+ reabsorption. Released due to Sodium status and Angiotensin.
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What is Atrial Natriuretic Peptide? (ANP)
Released from the right atrium and causes loss of Na+. Released due to blood volume.
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What are the assumptions of Renal Clearance?
All substances in urine come from plasma and that blood flow into kidney is equal to blood flow out.
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Card 2

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What is the kidney surrounded with?

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PERIRENAL FAT

Card 3

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Where is the kidney located in terms of the abdominal wall?

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Card 4

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Where is the kidney situated in relation to the stomach?

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Card 5

Front

Where is the kidney situated vertebral?

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