Religious Changes

How did Somerset go about attacking Catholicism in 1547?
Somerset's policy was slow and cautious- not only was the country still Catholic but he was only a moderate Protestant.
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What happened in July 1547?
The Book of Homilies was introduced. The Books of Homilies are two books of thirty-three sermons developing the reformed doctrines of the Church of England in greater depth and detail than in the Thirty-Nine Articles of Religion.
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What were dissolved in 1547?
Chantries were dissolved when parliament met, a further attack on superstition as they are places where masses for the souls of the dead were said.
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What affect did Parliament repealing the Treason Act have?
It unleashed more radical views and unrest as it lift restrictions on what could be said, which meant radicals were free to discuss more radical reforms.
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List an example of radical activity in 1548.
Pamphlets attacking the mass were published.
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When was the act of uniformity passed?
January 1549.
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What numerous Protestant practices did the Act of uniformity include?
Sacraments are just communion,baptism,confrimation, marriage and burial. Clergy could marry, singing for the souls was ended, Hoy communion in English, Laity could take communion in both kinds.
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What did the Act of Uniformity do?
It removed all traces of Catholicism, establishing Calvin's concept of a spiritual presence and beaching the basis for all services.
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When was the Second Act of Uniformity and the Second Prayer Book introduced?
They were only brought in during the last year of Edward's reign so had little time to have an impact.
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What did the 42 articles involve?
The Articles endorsed justification by faith alone and the primacy of Scripture, while repudiating transubstantiation and purgatory. They showed the influence of Calvin and Zwingli, as well as that of Luther.
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What happened to the 42 articles?
They were drawn up, but never became law because of Edward's death.
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What evidence is there to suggest that the changes were not easy to impose?
Shown by the legislation to remove images in July 1547, Feb 1548 and finally December 1548.
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What were the demands of the rebels of the Western Rebellion of 1549?
They demanded the restoration of the 6 articles, mass in latin, holy bread and water to be restored, images to be restored, prayers for the souls of the dead.
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What evidence from wills is there that Protestantism wasn't popular?
In York there were just two Protestant wills before 1550 and one in the south-east, suggesting that traditional religion still had much appeal.
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What was the overall affects of the religious changes?
The amount of change probably left many confused or indifferent, with many simply conforming because they were told they had to. This also appears to be the case with many clergy, who served Henry, Edward and Mary.
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What were four aims Mary had at the start of her reign?
1. Undo the religious changes made since 1529. 2.Restore Papal authority. 3.Restore traditional Catholic practices. 4.Re-establish monasteries.
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What were another three aims Mary had at the start of her reign?
1. End clerical marriage. 2. Persecute those who did not agree with her views. 3. Secure a long-term future for Catholicism by marrying and having an heir.
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How was Mary welcomed?
She was welcomed with enthusiasm: bells were rung and parliament opened with a mass even though it was illegal.
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What were the concerns of Gardiner, Renard and the Pope?
Gardiner was uncertain about restoring papal authority, Renard was unsure about restoring monasteries and the Pope was concerned that she would move too quickly.
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When did Parliament refuse the Act of Supremacy ?
Oct 1553.
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What did Parliament pass instead of the Act of Supremacy?
The Act of Repeal which undid the changes made under Edward and restored the situation to that of 15547 under the Act of Six Articles.
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What Catholic practices were restored in 1554?
Holy days, procession and ceremonies. A large number of married clergy were also deprived and Protestant bishops are removed.
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When were the heresy laws introduced?
1554 and burnings started in February 1555.
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When was the the Second Act of Repeal introduced and what did it do?
November 1554. It repealed all religious legislation passed since 1529.
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What did Mary have to do after she introduce the Second Act of Repeal?
Compromise with landowners by guaranteeing the rights of this who had bought Church land since 1536
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What was the return of Cardinal Pole to England followed by?
The introduction of a number of positive measure to increase the appeal of Catholicism.
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What examples of Catholic reform did Pole encourage?
Bishops are ordered to make regular visitations and check clerical behaviour, Pole ordered new publications, including a Catholic New Testament and Book of Homilies.
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What are examples of popular support for Mary's religious policies?
Mary's return to London was greeted with joy on the streets, in churches and parliament. Large numbers also turned out for Mary's coronation, in stark contrast to Jane's.
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What happened on the 23 of August?
An alter and cross were set up at St Nicholas Cole Abbey in London, where mass was said.
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What was the main motivation of Wyatt's rebellion?
Although the leaders had Protestant sympathies, they were angered due to Mary's proposed marriage to Philip of Spain.
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Who were the Marian exiles?
800 committed Protestants, mostly gentry, clergy and the more wealthy who left England and went into exile for the rest of Mary's reign.
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Why weren't there more Marian exiles?
As leaving was not really an option for the less well off.
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What happened in Parishes, such as Morebath in Devon?
Parishioners raised considerable sums of money to purchase vestments and other equipment needed to carry out Catholic services.
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Who was the fist person burnt under Mary and when did it occur?
John Rogers in Feb 1555.
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How many were burnt?
Nearly 300, 51 of whom were women.
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Where did most of the burnings occur?
South-east, London, Canterbury and Colchester.
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Why are the burnings largely remembered?
Because if John Foxe's Acts and Monuments, more commonly knows as The Book of Martyrs.
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Some have argued that those who actually attended the burnings were so impressed by the dedication of those being burnt that they converted. Is this a reliable statement?
No. As evidence to support his claim is limited and only one person appears to have been so moved as to convert.
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Who expressed concerns about the impact of the burnings?
Spanish ambassador at the time.
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What did the death of Gardiner in November 1555 lead to?
His death removed a restraining influence on Mary and was followed by an increase, with some 274 perishing in the last three years of her reign.
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Who benefited from the burnings?
Cherry pickers from Kent as it gave them an increased market to which they could sell their produce.
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Why and where did most of the burnings take place?
In the south-east because that was where most Protestants where.
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Why may have the burnings occurred more in the south-east area?
As it was closer to London and the authorities were more concerned about the dangers and put increased pressure on local authorities to act.
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The view that more burnings occurred in the south-east can be supported by what?
The number of letters sent to JPs in the south urging action.
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What reasons are possibly responsible for the delay of letters enforcing the burnings?
Delay of letters may have been due to the war against France in 1557.
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What was the overall impact of the burnings?
The degree of damage it did to Mary's popularity is debatable. It was not a success but probably not a disaster.
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Was Mary devout in her personal worship?
Yes, she heard Mass at least once a day and said prayers in her chapel every night.
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Who did Cardinal Pole compare Mary to?
Jesus's mother, Mary.
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Who was Simon Renard?
The imperial ambassador from Charles V.
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Who was Reginald Pole?
A cousin of Mary's. He became papal legate with a brief to restore papal authority in England.
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Who was Philip II of Spain?
Son of Charles V and husband of Mary.
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Who was Charles V?
Mary's cousin, and Holy Roman Empire. Mary maintained a regular correspondence with him throughout her reign, regarding him as something of a father-figure.
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Who was Julius III?
Pope when Mary acceded the throne in 1553. He wanted all ex-Church lands to be returned to the Church before England could be reconciled to Rome.
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Who was Paul IV?
Pope from 1555. He was fiercely anti-hamburg and this brought England into conflict with the Papacy.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What happened in July 1547?

Back

The Book of Homilies was introduced. The Books of Homilies are two books of thirty-three sermons developing the reformed doctrines of the Church of England in greater depth and detail than in the Thirty-Nine Articles of Religion.

Card 3

Front

What were dissolved in 1547?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What affect did Parliament repealing the Treason Act have?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

List an example of radical activity in 1548.

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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