Religion, Ideology and science

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  • Created by: Megan
  • Created on: 28-04-15 17:31
Define Belief System
A framework of ideas through which individuals make sense of the world
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How may someone argue that science is a belief system?
Although it doesn't tell us how to act it does claim to tell us about how the world is
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How has science undermined religion?
By changing the way we think and how we see the world. The successes of science has lead to a widespread faith in science
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What sort of belief system does POPPER argue that science is?
An open belief system. By this he means that scientist's theories are open to scrutiny, criticism and testing
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According to POPPER what is science governed by? How does this differ from religion ?
Falsification, scientists actively seek evidence to disprove their theories. This differs from religion as religion claims to know the absolute truth, whereas science tries to discover new things
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Why may science be seen as a closed system of belief? give an example (DR VELIKOVSKY)
Science often dismisses new ideas which go against pre-existing paradigms. e.g. Dr Velikovsky published work on the origins of the earth. The response from the scientific community was far from open. Instead of testing the theory they rushed to rejec
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How does KUHN argue that science operates?
Within a paradigm. Those who stick to the paradigm are rewarded with bigger research grants. Those who dont adhere are likely to be ridiculed and hounded out of the profession
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What is a Paradigm?
A way of thinking that is dominant. It tells the scientist what reality is like, what problems to solve, what methods to use etc.
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What do interpretivists argue scientific knowledge is?
Socially constructed- Rather than being objective, knowledge is created by social groups using resources available to them. Scientific facts are a product of shared theories that tell them what they should see
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Define Ideology
A set of beliefs or principles
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When someone uses the term ideology to describe a belief system what do they mean?
They regard it as factually and/or morally wrong
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What two classes does Marxism see society as being divided into?
The minority capitalist class who own the means of production and control the state, and the majority working class who are forced to sell their labour to the capitalists .
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What do Marxists argue that capitalists produce?
A ruling class ideology - ideas which justify and legitimate the status quo.
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What does Ruling class ideology say about equality?
Equality will never work because it goes against human nature
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What does ruling class ideology say about poverty?
Everyone has equal chance in life so the poor must be poor because they are either stupid or lazy (Victim blaming)
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What does ruling class ideology say about ethnic minorities?
Racist ideas about the inferiority of ethnic minorities, which divide black and white workers and make them easier to rule
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What do the dominant ideas in society function to do?
Prevent change by creating a false class consciousness among the workers.
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How does Mannheim see all belief systems?
as a partial or one sided world view. Their one sidedness results from being the viewpoint of one particular group/class and its interests.
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What two broad types of belief system does Mannheim distinguish between?
Ideological thought and Utopian thought
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What is ideological thought?
Justifies keeping things as they are. It reflects the interests of the capitalist class where the belief system favours hierarchy and is conservative
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What is Utopian thought?
Justifies social change. Reflects the interests of the unerprivileged and offers a vision of how society could be organised differently.
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What do feminists see as the fundamental division? What legitimates it?
Gender inequality with patriarchal ideology as playing a key role in legitimating it
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Give one of Mark's examples of how ideologies justify gender inequality (Science & Ed.)
Ideas from science have been used to justify excluding women from education. 19thC male educationalists and scientists expressed the view that educating females would lead to unfeminine females.
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What three devices does POLARYI argue belief systems use when faced with evidence that contradicts their belief?
1)Circularity 2)Subsidary explanations 3)Denial of legitimacy to rivals
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What is meant by Circularity?
Each idea in the system is explained in terms of another idea within the system
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What is meant by Subsidary explanations?
If oracle fails it may be explained away as due to the incorrect use of the benge
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What is meant by Denial of legitimacy to rivals?
belief systems that reject alternative world views by refusing to grant legitimacy to their basic assumptions.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

How may someone argue that science is a belief system?

Back

Although it doesn't tell us how to act it does claim to tell us about how the world is

Card 3

Front

How has science undermined religion?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What sort of belief system does POPPER argue that science is?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

According to POPPER what is science governed by? How does this differ from religion ?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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