Religion and social groups

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  • Created by: Amy
  • Created on: 04-06-13 19:26
what are beliefs?
views a person or group holds to be true about how the world works
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what is science a product of?
rationalisation of thought
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what is this caused by?
the protestant reformation
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what has this led to the decline of?
religious explanations
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what positive things has science given us?
medicine, transport, health care, work, leisure, technology
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what did the Enlightenment project believe?
science would improve the world
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why does popper argue science is an open belief system?
because it is constantly under scrutiny, challenge and criticism
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how is this done?
through falsification
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what is this?
where scientists aim to disprove their theories
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what is an example of this?
all swans are white
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why is this scientific?
no matter how much we prove this to be correct, we can never be certain that this will always be true - a black swan might show up
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what does this allow?
the development of new information
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in this way, science is what?
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what is this
builds on existing knowledge and continues to grow
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why is religion a closed belief system
religion claims absolute truth, answers any challenge with a response from a religious text, knowledge cannot grow as there is no more to acquire
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why can popper's view of science as an open belief system be challenged?
because scientists use existing knowledge to shape their research
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what does Kuhn argue about scientific knowledge?
it exists in a paradigm
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what is this?
a set of ideas and knowledge that shapes our understanding of the world
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what does a paradigm set out?
what scientists should study and how they interpret it
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how are theories that do not fit the existing paradigm treated?
they're rejected and ridiculed
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why does this suggest science is closed?
because it rejects ideas that do not fit existing knowledge
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why does this suggest science is not cumulative?
knowledge is not growing; it only develops very occasionally when evidence builds up that cannot be explained by the existing paradigm
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what can this lead to?
a scientific revolution
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what is this?
when a current paradigm is replaced by a new one
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what did copernicus prove?
that the sun is the centre of the universe, not the earth
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how do interpretivists take kuhn's idea further?
science is a social construction
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what is this?
science is not an objective truth, but created by scientists with the knowledge and resources available to them
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what did knorr-cetina argue?
that scientific facts are fabricated by scientists
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they observe 'facts' in controlled labs, using instruments created for a specific scientific purpose
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why has the credibility of science been called into question?
it has also caused harm
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what does giddens argue?
science has brought many benefits but in a late-modern society, science no longer provides absolute truth and certainty
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scientific truths are only true when?
in one given time, new research may come to light that disproves it
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what does beck argue about religion and postmodernism?
is has created crime on a global scale
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what has the risks and uncertainty of science led us to do?
question science
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why is the credibility of science undermined?
because scientists cannot agree on the benefits or dangers of scientific developments
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what does lyotard argue about science in a postmodern society?
we have lost faith in metanarratives such as religion and science
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what has science failed to deliver?
the enlightenment promise of progess
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who do people no longer trust?
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what has science become?
a tool of industry and commerce for the the development of goods and profit
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how do marxists see science?
it benefits the ruling class, they develop and sell goods that may be harmful and can develop types of weapons to control the subject class
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how do feminists see science?
it benefits men - contraception is aimed at women, not men. contraception for men is safe, many side effects for women - scientists are males
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what is an ideology?
ideas and values, a belief system, usually distorted to benefit a powerful group and prevents change - closed belief system
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how does abercrombie challenge the marxist view of ideology?
they do not challenge the ruling class not because of false class consciousness, but because of economic factors - they don't want to lose their jobs
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what is another criticism?
failure of communism suggests it may not be an ideal society
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what does mannheim argue about belief systems?
they are partial worldviews; reflect the thoughts of one group
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what are the two types of belief system?
ideological and utopian thought
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what is ideological thought?
reflects those in power, justifies their power and prevents social change
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what is utopian thought?
reflects powerless and encourages change to make a better society
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how can this lead to conflict in society?
they both create their own intellectuals who represent one viewpoint. each has to justify the interests of the wider group and challenge those who oppose them
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what is the free-floating intelligentsia?
intellectuals must detach themselves from their interest groups and see many worldviews from the interests of society as a whole
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why is this difficult to achieve?
because of the intense differences between the different types of thought
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how has science reinforced the patriarchal ideology?
19th century males - women should not be educated because it distracts them from their true purpose
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Card 2


what is science a product of?


rationalisation of thought

Card 3


what is this caused by?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


what has this led to the decline of?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


what positive things has science given us?


Preview of the front of card 5
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