Religion and social groups

HideShow resource information
  • Created by: Amy
  • Created on: 04-06-13 16:38
the majority of religous leaders are of what gender?
1 of 54
the majority of religious followers are of what gender?
2 of 54
women are more likely to hold what beliefs?
religious beliefs such as god, evil, heaven and hell and life after death
3 of 54
how do males see god?
all-powerful and controlling
4 of 54
how do females see god?
caring, loving and forgiving
5 of 54
according to miller and hoffman, women are socialised to be what?
passive, caring, obedient and submissive towards authority
6 of 54
why does this mean women are more likely to be religious?
because religions value these traits
7 of 54
why do women have more time to participate in religion?
because they are usually part-time workers or full-time carers
8 of 54
what may religion provide women?
a sense of identity
9 of 54
why is this identity denied elsewhere?
through part-time work or the family
10 of 54
how does religion allow women to gain status?
because they can take on roles such as churchwardens or readers or another position within the church commuity
11 of 54
according to davie, women's roles mean that they are closer to what?
birth and death
12 of 54
why are women closer to birth?
they give birth, and often involved in professions such as midwifery, nursing or childcare
13 of 54
how are they closer to death?
they care for elderly relatives and can witness death in their profession as a nurse
14 of 54
what does this bring women closer to?
ultimate questions such as life after death and the meaning of life
15 of 54
why might women then join religions?
to get answers
16 of 54
why might the new age attract women?
because NAMs emphasise healing and nature and women are more in tune with nature
17 of 54
what did heelas and woodhead find in the holistic milieu of the kendal project?
women made 80% of the holistic milieu
18 of 54
what might NAMs give women?
a sense of status and self-worth
19 of 54
what does bruce argue?
women are socialised to be caring and passive. men wish to achieve, women wish to feel: characteristics of the new age
20 of 54
who argues that women are twice as likely as men to belong to sects?
21 of 54
what are the three types of deprivation glock and stark identify that women may experience?
social;organismic; ethical
22 of 54
what is social deprivation? and why would women join sects because of this?
women are more likely to be marginalised due to part-time work or poverty. sects offer a theodicy of disprivilege
23 of 54
what is ethical deprivation and why would women join sects because of this?
women hold established morals and may see society as being in moral decline - join sects because they are also critical of society
24 of 54
what is organismic deprivation and by might women turn to NAMs?
women are more likely to experience physical and mental illness and turn to NAMs for alternative healing
25 of 54
are ethnic minorities more likely to participate in christian or non christian religion?
non christian
26 of 54
who are more likely to hold religious belief and participate in religion - ethnic minority groups or the majority?
ethnic minorities
27 of 54
why might ethnic minority groups be attracted to sects?
marginalisation and relative deprivation caused by racism in wider society
28 of 54
how might religion act as a cultural defence for ethnic minority groups?
religion creates a sense of identity of a group which unites them by creating solidarity, maintains their culture and helps deal with an oppressive wider socety
29 of 54
what is an example of this in the 50s and 60s?
black people found it difficult to access traditional christian churches because of racism. they then established black-led christian churches which helped defend their culture
30 of 54
how may religion help with cultural transition?
religion provides support and community for immigrants moving into a new culture
31 of 54
how does madood criticise this?
religion was less significant for the second and third generations - need for religion declined
32 of 54
religious participation is generally higher amongst which age groups?
older age groups
33 of 54
however, why is there high participation rates for under 15s?
their parents take them
34 of 54
what does the low levels of religious participation in 15-19 year olds show?
religion declines amongst young people when they have the choice whether to participate
35 of 54
why does attendance decline for over 65s?
they become too sick and infirm to attend
36 of 54
what are the two explanations that voas and crockett give for the differences in religious participation?
ageing effect and generational effect
37 of 54
what is the ageing effect?
people become more religious as they get older because they are closer to or more aware of death
38 of 54
what is the generational effect?
each generation is half as religious as the one before it. older people are more likely to participate because they grew up during a time when it was important and participation was common
39 of 54
what did heelas and woodhead find in the holistic milieu?
83% were over 40
40 of 54
why do they suggest this is?
they went through a lengthy period of education and employment and have begun to reflect on themselves
41 of 54
what age group are more likely to participate in world affirming NRMs?
42 of 54
why does wallis argue this is due to?
their commitment to their careers has led to a repression of their inner selves, world affirming NRMs allow them to release their repression and seek new sources of identity
43 of 54
what did barker find among the moonies?
they were young and middle class whose parents were involve in public service occupations. moonies provided a surrogate family where they found support outside of the family and they served a community like their parents did in wider society
44 of 54
NRMs have high drop out rates. what does this suggest?
the needs that NRMs provide are only short-term
45 of 54
what class do churches attract?
middle class
46 of 54
they tend to be ideologically conservative and linked to the state
47 of 54
what classes are sects likely to attract?
lower classes
48 of 54
marginalisation and relative deprivation
49 of 54
what did beckford and barker find in their studies of jehovah's witnesses and moonies?
they were middle class and not likely to be marginalised
50 of 54
why did they join sects?
they had become disillusioned with the materialism of modern life and felt mainstream religion no longer met their spiritual needs. this created a sense of relative deprivation
51 of 54
why does wallis argue young middle class people join world rejecting NRMs?
in order to change political regimes
52 of 54
NAMs appeal to what class?
middle class
53 of 54
because they have the money to pay for services and middle class expressive roles such as nursing and teaching encourage an interest in the new age
54 of 54

Other cards in this set

Card 2


the majority of religious followers are of what gender?



Card 3


women are more likely to hold what beliefs?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


how do males see god?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


how do females see god?


Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards


No comments have yet been made

Similar Sociology resources:

See all Sociology resources »See all Religion and beliefs resources »