Religion and social groups

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  • Created by: Amy
  • Created on: 04-06-13 16:38
the majority of religous leaders are of what gender?
male
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the majority of religious followers are of what gender?
female
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women are more likely to hold what beliefs?
religious beliefs such as god, evil, heaven and hell and life after death
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how do males see god?
all-powerful and controlling
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how do females see god?
caring, loving and forgiving
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according to miller and hoffman, women are socialised to be what?
passive, caring, obedient and submissive towards authority
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why does this mean women are more likely to be religious?
because religions value these traits
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why do women have more time to participate in religion?
because they are usually part-time workers or full-time carers
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what may religion provide women?
a sense of identity
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why is this identity denied elsewhere?
through part-time work or the family
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how does religion allow women to gain status?
because they can take on roles such as churchwardens or readers or another position within the church commuity
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according to davie, women's roles mean that they are closer to what?
birth and death
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why are women closer to birth?
they give birth, and often involved in professions such as midwifery, nursing or childcare
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how are they closer to death?
they care for elderly relatives and can witness death in their profession as a nurse
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what does this bring women closer to?
ultimate questions such as life after death and the meaning of life
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why might women then join religions?
to get answers
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why might the new age attract women?
because NAMs emphasise healing and nature and women are more in tune with nature
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what did heelas and woodhead find in the holistic milieu of the kendal project?
women made 80% of the holistic milieu
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what might NAMs give women?
a sense of status and self-worth
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what does bruce argue?
women are socialised to be caring and passive. men wish to achieve, women wish to feel: characteristics of the new age
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who argues that women are twice as likely as men to belong to sects?
bruce
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what are the three types of deprivation glock and stark identify that women may experience?
social;organismic; ethical
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what is social deprivation? and why would women join sects because of this?
women are more likely to be marginalised due to part-time work or poverty. sects offer a theodicy of disprivilege
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what is ethical deprivation and why would women join sects because of this?
women hold established morals and may see society as being in moral decline - join sects because they are also critical of society
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what is organismic deprivation and by might women turn to NAMs?
women are more likely to experience physical and mental illness and turn to NAMs for alternative healing
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are ethnic minorities more likely to participate in christian or non christian religion?
non christian
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who are more likely to hold religious belief and participate in religion - ethnic minority groups or the majority?
ethnic minorities
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why might ethnic minority groups be attracted to sects?
marginalisation and relative deprivation caused by racism in wider society
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how might religion act as a cultural defence for ethnic minority groups?
religion creates a sense of identity of a group which unites them by creating solidarity, maintains their culture and helps deal with an oppressive wider socety
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what is an example of this in the 50s and 60s?
black people found it difficult to access traditional christian churches because of racism. they then established black-led christian churches which helped defend their culture
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how may religion help with cultural transition?
religion provides support and community for immigrants moving into a new culture
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how does madood criticise this?
religion was less significant for the second and third generations - need for religion declined
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religious participation is generally higher amongst which age groups?
older age groups
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however, why is there high participation rates for under 15s?
their parents take them
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what does the low levels of religious participation in 15-19 year olds show?
religion declines amongst young people when they have the choice whether to participate
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why does attendance decline for over 65s?
they become too sick and infirm to attend
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what are the two explanations that voas and crockett give for the differences in religious participation?
ageing effect and generational effect
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what is the ageing effect?
people become more religious as they get older because they are closer to or more aware of death
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what is the generational effect?
each generation is half as religious as the one before it. older people are more likely to participate because they grew up during a time when it was important and participation was common
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what did heelas and woodhead find in the holistic milieu?
83% were over 40
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why do they suggest this is?
they went through a lengthy period of education and employment and have begun to reflect on themselves
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what age group are more likely to participate in world affirming NRMs?
35-39
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why does wallis argue this is due to?
their commitment to their careers has led to a repression of their inner selves, world affirming NRMs allow them to release their repression and seek new sources of identity
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what did barker find among the moonies?
they were young and middle class whose parents were involve in public service occupations. moonies provided a surrogate family where they found support outside of the family and they served a community like their parents did in wider society
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NRMs have high drop out rates. what does this suggest?
the needs that NRMs provide are only short-term
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what class do churches attract?
middle class
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why
they tend to be ideologically conservative and linked to the state
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what classes are sects likely to attract?
lower classes
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why?
marginalisation and relative deprivation
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what did beckford and barker find in their studies of jehovah's witnesses and moonies?
they were middle class and not likely to be marginalised
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why did they join sects?
they had become disillusioned with the materialism of modern life and felt mainstream religion no longer met their spiritual needs. this created a sense of relative deprivation
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why does wallis argue young middle class people join world rejecting NRMs?
in order to change political regimes
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NAMs appeal to what class?
middle class
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why?
because they have the money to pay for services and middle class expressive roles such as nursing and teaching encourage an interest in the new age
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Card 2

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the majority of religious followers are of what gender?

Back

female

Card 3

Front

women are more likely to hold what beliefs?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

how do males see god?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

how do females see god?

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Preview of the front of card 5
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