Religion and Medical Ethics.

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Sanctity of life:
Life is sacred and God- given. Life is special and unique.
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What does cloning consist of?
Creating a genetically identical copy of an organism. It is a frankenstein technology.
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What is transplant surgery and describe two issues?
Medical treatment to replace faulty/ damaged/ useless organs. Rejection (anti- rejection drugs) or disease could be spread (careful screening takes place).
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What are blood transfusions and the issues surrounding them?
Medical procedure where blood is replaced within the body. The body may reject the blood (a good match is selected) or disease could be spread (careful screening takes place).
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What are the 3 phases of human testing?
1-healthy volunteers take small amounts of drug to test it's safe. 2-drug taken by small group of people with related illness. 3- drug taken by large number of patients. Strict rules, safety comes first. Consent is required. Frankenstein technology.
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What is In vitro fertilisation (IVF)?
The ovum is withdrawn from the woman and fertilised with a man's semen under laboratory conditions. The embryo is then transferred to the womb.
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What is surrogacy?
If a woman is unable to have children, her husband's sperm is used to impregnate another woman and the baby is given to the couple when born.
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What is AID?
Artificial insemination by donor. Donor's sperm is inserted into the woman’s uterus. This may help when there is a problem with the man’s sperm or the woman has ovulation problems.
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What is AIH?
Artificial insemination by husband. Husband's sperm is inserted into the woman’s uterus. This may help when there is a problem with the man’s sperm or the woman has ovulation problems.
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What is embryology?
A frankenstein technology. Experimenting with embryos created for IVF for reseach purposes. Consent of both parents is needed and research may be carried out only up to 14 days after an embryo was created. Must be licensed.
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What is reproductive cloning?
A frankenstein technology. It's aimed at creating human life & can be used as a form of fertility treatment. It is illegal in the UK.
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What is 'stem cell' (therapeutic) cloning?
Frankenstein technology. Embryo is created from donated human egg & an adult cell's nucleus. 6 days= stem cells removed for research. Embryo is destroyed. Stem cells can become anything.
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What can stem cells be used for?
New brain cells (Parkinson’s disease), rebuild bones & cartilage, repairing damaged immune systems, making replacement heart valves.
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What happened in 2006?
In March 2006, 6 men suffered multiple organ failure after testing an anti-inflammatory drug.
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What are xenotransplants?
A Frankenstein technology. Transplants between species e.g. foetal pig cells transplanted into a girl's brain helped her to walk again
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What is human genetic engineering?
Frankenstein technologies. Changes made to the genetic structure of living things e.g. saviour siblings and designer babies.
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What is somatic cell therapy and what is it used for?
A treatment that adds to, enhances or replaces a defective gene. Working copy of defective gene is grown and put into modified virus e.g. X-SCID.
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What are saviour siblings?
IVF produces embryos. PGD (pre-implantation genetic diagnosis) to screen embryos to choose one free from disorder & a close match with sick child. Stem cells from new baby can treat sick baby.
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What are designer babies?
Saviour siblings are designer babies- genetic make-up is selected.
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What are 5 arguments FOR human genetic engineering?
It saves lives. The saviour sibling can be just as loved and save a life too. Parents should have the right to choose treatment. A compassionate response to disease. Less expensive than current treaments.
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What are 5 arguments AGAINST human genetic engineering?
It is unnatural, 'playing God'. 'Designer babies' could become a business. Savious siblings could grow up feeling unwanted. There are big risks e.g. side effects. Somatic cell therapy may lead to eugenics.
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Religious views/ teachings FOR human genetic engineering:
('Right intention'.) (Compassion. Jesus healed others. Saves lives- Sanctity of life. God-given skills.) (Save lives. Responsible use of Allah's gift.)
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Religious views/ teachings AGAINST human genetic engineering:
('Do not kill'. Alter human nature= bad Karma.) ('Playing God'. Kantian ethics. Against natural law.) (Interfering with Allah's purpose. Only Allah has the right to determine genetic code.)
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What does utilitarianism mean?
'The greatest good for the greatest number'.
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What are Kantian ethics?
'Humans should not be used as a means to an end'.
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What are situation ethics?
Agape. Do the most loving thing in any situation.
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What does natural law mean?
Life has an absolute value and any act of taking a life is a violation of God's law.
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Religious views/ teachings FOR embryology:
('Right intention'. Metta, Karuna & wisdom- end suffering.)(Embryo= potential life, not actual life so not murder. Saving lives- compassion. Rules prevent abuse.)(Ensoulment not until 40-120 days. Wasteful to destroy spare embryos. Allah gave skills.
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Religious views/ teachings AGAINST embryology:
(Life begins at conception. 'Don't harm living beings'.)(Right to life from conception. 'Do not kill'. Treat embryo with respect. Natural law)(Abuse of technology? Life from conception..)
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Religious views/ teachings FOR cloning:
('Right intention'. Embryo doesn't posess 5 skandhas.)(Embryo=potential not actual life. Saves lives. Compassion and mercy.)(Treat people and save lives. No moral status for embryo before 120 days.)
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Religious views/ teachings AGAINST cloning:
(Theft of genetic material- 'Do not steal'. Craving= suffering. 'Do not kill')(Destroys uniqueness. Exploitation of embryo. Child= gift. 'Playing God'. Risks. Right to life. Respect. Murder)(Idolatrous. Allah=creator. Status of men threatened.)
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Religious views/ teachings FOR blood transfusions & organ transplants:
(Individual conscience. Metta, Karuna, generosity. Body is only a shell.)(
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Religious views/ teachings AGAINST blood transfusions & organ transplants:
Personal choice. Selfless gift. Save lives.
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Christian teachings:
.
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Buddhist teachings:
.
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Muslim teachings
.
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What does idolatrous mean?
Worship of beauty, intellect etc..
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Religious views/ teachings FOR fertility treatments:
(Sanctity of life.)(Children= blessing.)(Children are important part of marriage. Allah gave medical skills.)
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Religious views/ teachings AGAINST fertility treatments:
(Spare embryos produced is disrespectful of life. Karma. Social & physiological problems.)(Gift from God (RC). Natural law.)('Playing God'- Allah chooses.) Infertility is test of faith. Surrogacy and donor= adultery
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Card 2

Front

What does cloning consist of?

Back

Creating a genetically identical copy of an organism. It is a frankenstein technology.

Card 3

Front

What is transplant surgery and describe two issues?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are blood transfusions and the issues surrounding them?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are the 3 phases of human testing?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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