Religion 1640-1660

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Before 1640 what was the key discussion?
Religion - Arminianism VS Calvinism
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When do radical sects emerge?
During the civil war
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What was significant about the emergence of radical sects?
Religious divides no longer so easily distinct
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People stop wanting a coercive national church, what do they start speaking of?
Liberty of conscience
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When does the debate over liberty of conscience heighten?
During the 1650s
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How can you view the English Revolution?
As a function of the failing constitution, which had religion as a feature
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How must the interpretation of the English Civil Wars as a religious war be moderated?
Not saying it was an exclusively religious war but may be unimaginable without a certain level of Puritanism or Calvinism which became increasingly frustrated with religious policy under James I and especially Charles I
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What did the revisionist project do?
Disconnected the 1630s from the 1640s, stripping out ideology in order to deny long term causes
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What was the Whig position regarding the personal rule?
Eleven years of tyranny
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What are components that would support the view of the personal rule as eleven years of tyranny?
Parliament as home of liberty and a potentially Catholic religious position
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How is the Whig position regarding the personal rule largely seen today?
Discounted - revisionist scholarship had worked to overturn
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What perspective did the lecture take of the personal rule?
Inbetween the idea of the government being completely untenable without calling Parliament due to resistance and the revisionist position of personal rule as a period of stability and even success
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What is a revisionist perspective on the personal rule?
Period of stability and possibly even success
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Is it potentially possible that Charles I did not need Parliament and it was the civil war which destroyed personal rule?
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Give an example of a historian regarding the 'Puritan underground'?
Peter Lake
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Puritan underground
Religious discontent bubbling beneath the surface. While there was a surface layer of success and stability there was still discontent.
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What supports the argument that fundamental constitutional and religious issues were at stake?
There are people v. discontented with running of state and religious policy, discontent with monarch in 1630a
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Were people generally republicans against the monarchy?
No, were against Charles I specifically
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What can be said about the fact that people were losing trust in Charles I right up to 1649?
Can see him as being personally beheaded rather than the beheading of the monarchy in general
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How did Russell in the 1970s, in Causes of the English Civil War, view the issues?
As unideological
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Was there evidence in the 1620s that Charles I did not intent to call another Parliament?
No, there was no evidence in the 1620s from speeches or letters
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When did Charles I come very close to calling Parliament and was in discussion with his advisers?
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Was the issue with Charles I necessarily about his policy?
NO, but about the way he presented it
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How can Charles I be viewed in a positive light?
It was very difficult to pick up that the public were becoming more empowered, he was not good at appointing people who are sensitive to public opinion
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What is a more cynical interpretation of Charles I?
He does not care and believes himself to have divine right; does not care about how his policy plays out
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What is perhaps the best way to interpret Charles I?
A combination of both a cynical and positive interpretation
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How was Charles I's attitude to Parliament destryoed?
Factional politics
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Which faction was against Parliament?
Spanish faction
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Name the leading figures of the Spanish faction
William Laud, Thomas Howard, Richard Weston, Francis Cottington, Francis Windebank, Thomas Wentworth
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William Laud
Archbishop of Canterbury
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Thomas Howard
Earl of Arundel and special envoy to the courts of Europe
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Richard Weston
Earl of Portland; Lord Treasurer
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Francis Cottington
Master of the Wards - CATHOLIC
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Thomas Wentworth
Earl of Strafford and the Lord Deputy of Ireland
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Who was one of the most vocal supporters of the Petition of Right?
Thomas Wentworth
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Petition of Right (1628)
Parliament forced the king to give assent to this document as a precondition to granting any further taxes
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Which faction was for Parliament?
Dutch faction
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Name the main figures of the Dutch faction
Henrietta Maria, Henry Rich, Algernon Percy, Sir John Coke, Thomas Percy
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Henrietta Maria
Charles I's wife
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Henry Rich
Earl of Holland
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Although he was out of favour, what did Henry Rich do?
Fought for the King
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Algernon Percy
Earl of Northumberland, Lord High Admiral, a Puritan
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What was significant about the fact that the Earl of Northumberland fought for Parliament?
He was the highest ranking member of the regime to do so
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Sir John Coke
Sided with Parliament
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Thomas Roe
Approved Ship Money writs
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Quite soon after 1629 what was Charles I's advice split badly between?
Factions oer diplomatic foreign policy decisions
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Why was the Dutch faction more likely to support Parliament?
Need funding or diplomatic relations
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Give an example of a significant factional split
the Queen was in the opposite position to the Archbishop of Canterbury
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Give an example showing the fluidity of positions
Wentworth was in an anti-monarchical position in 1628/9 but was a follower of Charles I
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What can be said about those who more vocally opposed the king in the 1620s?
Almost always fought for him
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Was there a high degree of relation between position in the 1620s and side in Civil War?
No, little relation
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What is a key aspect of administration?
PRIvy Council
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What was the Privy Council springing away from?
Personal politics and faction
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Was the Privy Council growing in size?
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What had changed regarding who was present at the Privy Council?
King now present
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What replaced Parliament as point of contact with locality and exploited the monarchical republic?
Privy Council
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How does Kevin Sharpe describe the Book of Orders?
"the first link in the chain which connected the motor of central policy with the wheel of local action"
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Can Charles I be seen as emerging as an astute and principled monarch?
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By 1632/3 what did Charles I understand?
That without Parliament cannot rule through faction, must use Privy Council
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Why was Elizabeth I an incredibly effective ruler?
Had effective Privy Council
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The Book of Orders
Movement of centre to locality. "better administration of justice ... relief of the poor and ... reformation of disorders"
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What angered those who view Parliaments' MPs as the link between the king and body politic?
THat can replace Parliament with control over locality (issues that had previously been handled by local gentry); removing of political power
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Where was a key battleground during the personal rule?
Finance; tensions between effectiveness and representation
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What were the issues within finance?
Customs, monopolies and patents, knighthood fines, forestry laws, Ship Money and the Hampden case
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What does the Popish Soap monopoly show?
Charles I's lack of understanding of the relationship between effective policy and how it appered
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Popish Soap
Franchising out monopoly to a firm; grants monopoly on soap to a very famous Catholic Frenchman.
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From the 1630s onwards what was all soap known as?
Popish Soap
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Although Popish Soap raised a lot of money what was it seen as?
Catholic and tyrannous
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Ship Money
Tax levied on ports when threatened during war in order to build defences
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Why was Charles I's levying of ship money illegal?
Mounts everywhere regardless of fact that there was no war and in some cases no ports
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Who took Charles I to court over Ship Money?
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Did Charles I win the Ship Money case?
Yes, narrowly, with some of his own judges going against him
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What religion dominated while Laud was Archbishop of Canterbury?
Arminianism through Archbishop Laud, Catholics are quite prominent at court
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What was Laudism largely dedicated to?
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What can be seen as a direct result of the religious policies of Archbishop Laud?
Migration of Puritans to America from 1625
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Prynne's text first published in 1634. What did he link?
Catholicism at court with the monarch and immortality, alluding to the fact that he saw Henrietta Maria as a whore
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How was William Prynne severely punished in 1637?
His ears cut off
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What was William Prynne's second punishment?
Almost all of his cheeks are cut away
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Why did Stafford tell Laud not to punish Prynne so harshly?
Would leave Prynne as martyr, public growing in influence
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What did Laud think was necessary regarding Prynne?
Exemplary punishment
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Did Prynne continue writing?
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Who is at the cutting level of scholarship regarding the Puritan underground?
Peter Lake
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Puritan Underground - Puritans forced out of the public sphere and the licensing system was corrupt
Puritans disappear back into parishes, stop publishing and start having intraconfessional debates, often in manuscript forms, about how they have lost faith in regime
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Where do the radicals of the 1640s emerge from?
Often from Puritan Underground
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With the policy of the 'thorough' in 1630s, how was Ireland seen at that time?
Tyrannous place; effective policy represented this way in newsbooks and pamphlets
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What did Ireland and the Prynne case come together to create?
A sense of tyranny
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When was the Scottish Prayer Book Rebellion?
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How did the rebellion in Scotland over the prayer boook begin?
Charles I, through Laud, tried to enforce the Prayer Book. Scottish rebelled
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What kind of country was Scotland?
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When was the Scottish National Covenant issued ('covenanter movement')?
February 1638
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What was the agenda of the covenanter movement?
Implicitly radical, implying that that those signing the covenant would be more loyal to a godly king
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What were there repeated statements from the 1580s about?
The nature of being a good ccitizen
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Why was the Scottish National Covenant written in a moderate tone?
So people will sign to it
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What is significant about the Scottish National Covenant?
First time print culture used to create an identity of rebellion
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What happens after Charles' negotiations with theScots failed?
First Bishops' War - forces assemble in 1639 - ended by Treaty of Berwick
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How had Charles I planned to put down the Protestant rebels in Scotland? This was viewed negatively.
Use Irish Catholic troops
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What did Charles I allow (Catholic) Spanish troops to do?
March through England to get to Holland to fight the Dutch
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What happened when Charles had to call Parliament?
Ideas that had been underground rise to the forefront
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Why did Parliament not want to simply defeat the Scots?
Wanted redress to talk, especially about religion
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What does post-revisionist evidence suggest about the Puritan underground?
They are colluding with the covenanter
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Why does Charles I get rid of the Short Parliament?
Realises is never going to give him the money he needed
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Who won the Second Bishops' War?
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Charles I had to call the Long Parliament. They were the Parliament that will execute him. When do they sit until?
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Following the Bishops' Wars, how do opponents act towards Charles I and his advisers?
Aggressive to his advisers and regaring religion
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What is significant about the addresses during the elections for the Long Parliament?
They are much more political and anti-monarchical than previously seen, with underground discontent forced into the open
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What is the best primary evidence regarding the Long Parliament?
Protestation (1641)
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the Protestation (1641)
Called for the execution of evil councillors. Laud, Stafford and the Ship Money judges impeached. Religious motiaton
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How can religion be used?
Coalesce around negative viewpoints such as hatred of Catholicism, likely also a hatred of Luadism and Arminianism
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What is the tension within Calvinism in 1641 and 1642?
Can no longer agree about what they want doctrinally
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Give an example of engagement with the public
Root and Branch Petition
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Root and Branch Petition
Presented to Long Parliament in December 1640; signed by 15,000 Londoners
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What did the Root and Branch Petition ask for?
Called on Parliament to abolish episcopacy "roots and branches"
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When was the Root and Branch Bill defeated?
August 1641
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What did Parliament decide do, with the passage of an act in December 1641?
Exclude bishops from House of Lords. Bishops Exclusion Act - effective from February 1642
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When were the aims of the Root and Branch Bill ultimately achieved?
October 1646
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What did Parliament start to realise?
Is going to have to fight the king
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What are some issues on the slide to war?
Grand Remonstrance and when Charles I attempted to invade the Common and arrest five members
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Was war inevitable?
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Why did Charles I leave London on 10th January 1642?
Failed to mount a coup against the leaders of Parliament
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What was said regarding if Charles I had remained in the capital?
'the King had like to have been torn in pieces by the citizens'
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What did Charles I's attempts to arrest the five members of Parliament show?
Disregard for privileges of Parliament
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When Charles I arrived in York after leaving London in 1642 how many were with him?
39 gentlemen and 17 guards
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On 23 April 1642 what happened?
Charles I was refused entry to Hull by the garrison commander, he offered to enter with thirty men but was forced to withdraw
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What does Cressy say happened between 1640 and 1642?
"a multifaceted revolution swept England between 1640 and 1642"
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What is significant about the revolution Cressy saw as sweeping England?
Political, constitutional, social, cultural and political dimensions
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What does Cressy describe as the main cause of the civil war?
Reactions to the "revolution" of 1640-1642, strains and contradictions within it and failure of parliamentary gentry to contain it
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What have recent contributions to the debate over the English civil wars emphasised?
Ideological and geographical dimensions
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What has the 'Puritan Revolution' yielded to?
England's wars of religion
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What has the 'revolt of the provinces' expanded into?
'the wars of three kingdoms'
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By some accounts when did the revolution begin and end?
Did not happen before the autumn of 1648 and was probably over by the following sprign
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How do those who allow the period of revolution greater vitality define it?
Perhaps 1647 to 1658 or from the Scottish Wars of the 1630s to the Restoration reaction of 1662
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What may be the most fruitful approach regarding the English Civil Wars?
Consider the revolution a process rather than a moment, an evolution rather than an event, series of crashes and crises between 1640 and 1660
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What do most scholars who recognize an English Revolution take it to have embraced what?
A transformed political environment, profound constitutional upheaval, a shattered religious culture and a spate of radical ideas
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What is an issue with the developments often embraced as being part of English Revolution?
Located after 1642, as if they were products or consequences of the Civil War
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Where does Alan G.R. Smith locate the radicalization of political, religious and social attitudes?
In the years after 1642
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What does Cressy say about the causes of the civil war?
"It was a revolution that caused the war, not the war that brought about revolution"
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What significant events took place before the outbreak of war?
The collapse of the Laudian ascendancy, the humbling of Charles I, the splintering of the Church of England, and a transformation of the social circumstances of public debate
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What does Cressy say about the state even before 1642?
That the state was "deeply traumatised"
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Give descriptions of the 'revolutions' within the revolution?
Levellers, Quakers, regicide, republicanism, constitutions backed by militaryrule
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Is the early dating of the revolution common?
Use to be more common but was swamped by the revisionist tide
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When did seventeenth century chronicles of England's troubles date the core of the crisis to?
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Until the opening of the Long Parliament who had enjoyed the favour of the episcopal hierarchy and the disciplinary backing of the ecclesiastical courts?
ceremonialists and Arminians
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After November 1640 how were Arminians treated?
Found themselves under attack from a hostile Parliament and press
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What did the years 1640 to 1642 see with regards to popular politics and citizen involvement?
Transformation of the political nation, the beginning of mass politics, and a rapid and revolutionary expansion of what is sometimes called the 'public sphere'
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What was significant about the Protestation?
Invited entire adult male population to engage with the highest matters of Church and State, drawing more people into political process - practical mobilization of citizenship five years before being theorized by the Levellers
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What is often suggested about the Civil War and what does Cressy instead argue?
Often suggested that the Civil War turned soldiers into citizens. Cressy argues that the Civil War turned citizens into soldiers
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Why does Cressy argue that the Civil War turned citizens into soldiers?
Poiticized army sprang from a politicised citizeny
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What was true of many of the people who supported the king in 1642?
Did not like him, did not revere him, and did not trust him but he was the only monarch they had
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What was unprecedented about the Long Parliament?
Mood and context of the Long Parliament were unprecedented
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How is the mood and context of the Long Parliament evident?
Difference between the rhetoric and agenda of the Long Parliament in the early weeks and those of the Short Parliament
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What was a difference between the Long Parliament and the Short Parliament?
When the Short Parliament had been assembled, the King had retained the initiative, freedom to dissolve them at will
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Whatdoes Morrill argue?
"there was in 1640 an ideological crisis as well as a functional crisis£
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Morrill says that during the early days of the Long Parliament there were three modes of opposition?
Localist, legalist-constutionalist, religious
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What does Morrill say about the localist and legal-constutionalist perceptions of government?
Lacked the momentum and passion to bring about kind of civil war which England experienced after 1642
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What does Morrill say about religion and the English Civil War?
"It was the force of religion that drove minorities to fight, and forced majorities to make reluctant choices"
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What did localism in the 1630s or in 1640 lead naturally into?
Neutralism in 1642
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What did the localism mentality see war as?
Unmitigated disaster, could not dcide between loyalty to king and parliament
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Legal-constitutionalist opposition (Morrill)
Area of constitutional dissent and alarm was still limited
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What does Morrill warn regarding considering opposition?
Beware the tendency to overlook the common ground that united political nation and the habit of lumping together every complaint issued by any critic of royal policy to assume that anyone who articulated any accepted all
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Is there clear evidence that by 1640 very large numbers of men in the gentry and beyond had a limited but clear and firm belief in a partial royal tyranny?
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Was there criticism of the long term development of the early modern state or a demand for fundamnetal change of nature of royal power?
No - focus on misgovernment of Charles I
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How can the legal-constitutionalist perception of misgovernment be described?
Limited tyranny
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What does Morrill say about legal-constitutionalist perception of misgovernment?
Led to unhurried and largely uncontroversial programme of remedial legislaation intended to conserve ancient constitution
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How does Morrill say that the religious perception of misgovernment differed from the localist and legal-constitutionalist perception?
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In the late 1620s how did most critics of Arminianism speak?
As defenders of the church against novelty and innovation
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Even in late 1640 what can be said about the the need to overturn the church?
The number who appeared to have anticipated this need remained small
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Athough the events of 1641 reinforced constitutional conservatism, what did they also do?
Polarised the religious views of members of both Houses - response to sermons, tracks and lobbying
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Why does Morrill say that the civil war broke out?
Because small minorities pushed forward, volunteered and took arms - it was not the militia or army that wereb instruments of war but individual captains and colonels
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Why does Morrill see many of the rank and file volunteering to fight?
Because they expected a short campaign in slack season after harvest or to escape trade slump in London. Officers motivated by cause
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How does Morrill present English civil war?
"not the first European revolution: it was the last of the Wars of Religion"
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What are the key considerations regarding the failure of the godly reformation?
Understanding radicalism, approaches to radicalism, types of radicalism, reactions to radicalism
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What are factors in the radicalism of the period?
Economic hardship, social dislocation, cultural change, enhanced power for press and print, religious diision
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Social dislocation
'the world turned upside down' Access of normal people to a level of power
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Cultural change
Dramatically enhanced role for women
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What are three methodological approaches to understanding radicalism?
Nominalism, radical tradition, functionalism *may want to consider*
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What is the argument of the lecture on the failure of the godly reformation?
Not radicalism but seeing the logical fragmentation of Puritanism
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Is radicalism in the period uncontested?
No. Restrictive structure, concerns over discipline
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When was the episcopacy abolished entirely?
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What are the questions that remain following the abolition of the episcopacy?
National church? Relationship of church to state? What degree of toleration?
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What are the important religious groups?
Independents, Separatists, Radical Sectaries, Baptists, Seekers, Ranters, Fifth Monarchists, Quakers,
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Were conditions ripe for the arrival of separatism?
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What do separatists want?
Removal of church structure
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What do radical sectaries want?
Toleration - no national church, free assembly and freedom of worship. Socially radical
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What are radical sectaries opposed to?
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What do baptists want?
Restriction of baptism
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What does the fact that baptists want the restriction of baptim signifiy?
Rejection of the compulsory ecclesiastical system
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What were baptists split into?
General Baptists and Particular Baptists
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Particular Baptists
Adhered to doctrine of particular atonement; that Christ died only for the elect, were strongly Calvinist
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General Baptists
theologically Arminian
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Who were the Seekers waiting for?
New sect of apostles
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What did the seekers have a millenarian anticipation of?
Revolutionary age
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What were ranters
Mystical antinomians who believe that salvation through faith and divine grace
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What do ranters deny?
Reality of the sin to the believer
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What do ranters fear?
Individual licentiousness and anarchy
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What views do Fifth Monarchists hold?
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What did Fifth Monarchists seek?
Replacement of the Rump
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What uprising were the Fifth Monarchists involved in?
Venter Uprising of 1657
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What did Fifth Monarchists attempt to do?
Assassinate Cromwell
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Often been in the army, mainly from the north, middling sort
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It is estimated that as many as 1% of the population were Quakers. How many people is this?
60,000 people
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What views did Quakers repudiate?
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What did Quakers prioritise?
Spirit over scripure
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Who were Quakers opposed to?
Landed elite - rejected hierarchy
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What were Quakers socially radical on?
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What was the main cause of dissent?
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What was radicalism the natural extension of?
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What were reactions to radicalism?
Blasphemy Act (1650) Proclamation (1655) Petition and Advice (1657) James Nayler case
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Anyone advocating changes in state, church or society which would have gone beyond the official programme of the mainstream
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When has the tradition of Protestant religious separatism been traced to?
Earliest days of English Reformation, if not to Lollardy and other medieval heresies long before that
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What does Aylmer say about manifestations of Interregnum radicalism?
Seem to follow naturally from earlier traditions of criticism or dissent
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What do radicals often do?
Appear to borrow ideas from the ancient world or from contemporary Europe. A few seem to have no precendent
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What does Aylmer see as being a new element discernible by 1643 or 1644?
Ideology of disillusionment or disappointment
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When does the ideology of disillusionment or disappointment operate with, in varying force?
1649, if not 1653, and again briefly in 1659-60 (Aylmer)
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Where is the ideology of disillusionment or disappointment expressed most clearly?
Pamphlets about parliamnetarian leadership in 1645-6 (later called Levellers) and then towards both parliament and high command of army in 1647-1649
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What was a leading question of the period?
Whether toleration should extent to Anglicans and to Papists
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At a theoretical level what does the issue of toleration involve?
The very nature of the church o godly community
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What was the issue with the idea that the church or godly community could be a select, voluntary body?
Any notion of a state church with compulsory financial maintenance fails
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What did Henry Parker say when he attacked Lilburne (Leveller) in 1659?
The Leveller leader had a following of between 10,000 and 20,000 people
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Leveller leader Lilburne had following of 10,000-20,000. What might this imply?
Potential readership plus oral audience of listeners two to three times that, say 50,000 (Aylmer)
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What would the equivalence today be of the Levellers having a potential audience of 50,000 people?
Equivalent in today's population to 450,000
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How close to being 'turned upside down' does Aylmer see events?
"not nearly as far as some alarmed contemporaries feared"
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What does Aylmer say about seventeenth century radical thought and propaganda?
"should not be surprised by the uncertainties, the limitations and inconsistencies"
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What was Professor Macpherson's thesis on the Levellers?
That they were never democrats
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In 1968, what did J. Davis say about Professor Macpherson's thesis on the Levellers?
View becoming new orthodoxy (although issue over his statistics)
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What did the resolution passed by the General Council of the Army on 4/5 November 1647 say?
'that all soldiers and others, if they be not servants or beggars, ought to have voices in electing those who shall represent them in Parliament'
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What does Davis say the Putney debates were about?
Not manhood suffrage but a contest between freehold franchise and a franchise inclusive of copyholders but exclusive of servants and paupers (Levellers)
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What did Macpherson think about the Putney debates?
The Levellers triumphed at the Putney debates but not in the name of manhood suffrage because they were never democrats
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What does Davis say about the Levellers and democracy and pragmatism?
"They were not democrats for the sake of democracy - nor, if you will excuse the phrase, were they non-democrats for the sake of democracy."
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When do we identify with the Levellers?
Mid to late 1640s
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When do we identify with the Fifth Monarchy Men?
Early 1650s
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Who are the mid to late 1650s identified with?
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What can be said about the fact that nature of radicals appears to have changed over period?
Evolving state of radical expectations in relation to events
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In the early 1640s there was a revived fear in what?
Popish plot
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What did the revived fear of the popish plot in the early 1640s represent for many?
Growing feeling that English Protestantism was being directly threatened
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What did John Pym's address in the opening days of Parliament speak of?
A plot "to alter the kingdom in both religion and goernment"
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How had fears of the popish plot been heightened?
Laudian policies which were seen by many as "English popery"
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The actions of the king furthered the belief of a Catholic threat. What else did they do?
Create idea that the monarch was complicit in such a plot; mutual agency between the Stuart cort and Rome, public practice of Catholicism at court by Henrietta Maria
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What does Fletcher say played into Pym's hands?
The army plots, the Incident, the Irish Rebellion, and the king's attempt to arrest five members
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What did the undercurrent of the popish plot create? (Fletcher)
Sense of urgency in Parliament to pass reform, not just to remove Laudian church policies but to prevent a repeat of these policies
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What did the undercurrent of fear force parlaiment to do?
Uncompromising stand against the king over issues such as the Militia Ordinance and 19 Propositions -> civil war
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What does Morrill see as contributing more to passion to fight: legal/constitutional issues or religion?
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Constitutional - Parliamentarians
Godly reformation and protect parliamentary liberties
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Constitutional - Royalists
Portect the church in its post-Laudian state. Attached to the episcopacy and Book of Common Prayer
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What did constitutional royalists come to associate religious reform with?
Social instability
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What made "cavalier Anglicanism a religion worth fighting for" (Cressy)
Upheavals of 1641
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What did each party see itself as attempting to protect and further?
Some notion of religion
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Is it easy to separate the growing divide in Parliament from the impact of popular pressure?
No - very difficult
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What are those in Parliament under pressure to do?
Introduce reform to prevent further radicalisation of the people and loss of puritans to separatist congregations
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How can the rise of popular radicalism be seen? (Manning)
Rise of the separatists and through waves of iconoclasm and protests within churches
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After what year were the separatists not facing any real kind of persecution?
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What shows popular desire for reform?
Root and Branch petition
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What did Coward see as the significance of the passing of the exclusion bill in 1642?
Saw it as having passed as the result of popular pressure
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What was the parliamentary leadership tarred with?
Views of radical allies
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What does Scott see religious upheavals in Scotland as direct response to?
Charles I's attempt to introduce the new prayer book in Scotland
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What did the covenant proposed and signed in Edinburgh state?
"if the king failed to defend the reformed tradition in the kirk... the people were morally required to resist him in the fulfilment of their covenanted obligation"
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What did Russell argue about events in Scotland and the divisions they caused?
Caused English civil war
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When was the rebellion in Ireland?
October 1641
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What did Scott see the uprising in Ireland as a response to?
Catholic fears of the growing rise of Puritanism in England and Scotland -> fears about further repression of their religion
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How many Protestants were killed in Ireland, leading to a violent Protestant backlash?
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What were the religious implications of the troubles in Ireland?
Exacerbated fears in England that "the papists were ready to rise and cut their throats" (Manning) and Charles' potential involvement provided greater justification for war
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What did the Irish involved in the rebellion see themselves as doing? (Aidan Clarke)
Upholding the king's sovereign rights and even as providing king with a pre-emptive coup against the Protestants
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How did powerful groups justify the resort to war in Scotland and Ireland?
In terms of fighting the antichrist
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Did events in Scotland and Ireland provide continuing religious justification for war?
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What did the fear of papal inundation from Ireland encourage?
Unstable Anglo-Scottish alliance with signing of the Solemn League and the Covenant of 1643
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Who was a Whig scholar?
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What does Whig scholarship see as the cause of civil war?
Occurred due to polar opposites
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Was legislation passed preventing Catholics from high positions in state office (until Protestants hold majority stake in Commons)?
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Gardiner believed the civil war to be result of long term accumulation of factors. Which two events in 1642 does he believe made it inevitable?
Militia Ordinance and the Nineteen Propositions
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Militia Ordinance
March 1642
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Who passed the Militia Ordinance?
Long Parliament
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What was the intent of the Militia Ordinance?
Intended to further undermine Charles I's powers by allowing parliament to appoint Lieutenants to command militia
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What was the concern regarding Charles I's possible use of his Lieutenants?
Could be used to prosecute the Five Members who had been arrested in Jnauary
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Charles I vetoed Militia Ordinance. What did Parliament insist?
"the People are bound by the Ordinance of the Militia"
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Nineteen Propositions
June 1642
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What was the significance of the Nineteen Propositions?
Nullified any reconciliation attempts between king and Parliament
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What did propositions four and five of the Nineteen Propositions say?
Mandated that education and spouses selected for king's children to first be appointed by parliament
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What did proposition 7 of the Nineteen Propositions say?
Rescinded voting rights of the Catholic gentry and made a Protestant education and upbringing mandatory for all Catholics
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In reaction to the Nineteen Proposals, following Charles I's rejection of them, what happened?
Both Charles I and parliament began preparing for armed conflict
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What was significant about the anti-Catholic slant of the Nineteen Proposals?
Charles I was married to a Catholic
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What is a key issue emerging from Whig Scholarship?
Why did growing tension between Protestants and Catholics not engender unity among English Protestants?
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What is inversion theory?
Shows Protestants left and right can be united by hatred of Catholicism. Different Calvinists talk bout hatred of Catholics in different ways as will have different reasons
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Who was Weber inspired by?
Marxist influenced
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Give an example of a Marxist historian
Christopher Hill
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How did Hill see the civil wars?
Class conflict
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What does Marxist scholarship suggest about the interference of church courts into the lies of ordinary people?
Was unacceptable
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What is Weber's theory called?
The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism
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What does Weber say about Britain's conversion to Protestantism during the Reformation?
Encouraged the rise of a capitalist minded class
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What did Calvinim reject?
Absolute power of Pope and other authoritative bodies; Marxists see strict moral code as engendering growing prosperity amongst the growing merchant class
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What does Weber think happened to the emergent capitalist class?
Became suffocated by Charles I's autocracy, e.g Ship money and Personal Rule
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When was there a financial crisis?
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What does Weber think about capitalist class?
By early 1640s was well-established and would eventually act against monarchy
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What are the questions with Marxist scholarship?
Links between Protestantism and an abnormally high work ethic are highly debatable; repression of Catholic business not conductive to a fair comparison
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What does revisionist scholarship see as causing the war?
Degeneration of king-parliament relationships
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Quentin Skinner's liberalism thesis (revisionist0
Emphasis on Parliament's recurring concern during the seventeenth century that man's liberty was under threat
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How was true liberty achieved?
Only if able to exercise rights 'never subject to anyone else's will
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What did Charles' refusal to grant royal assent to the Militia spark the realisation of?
No-one living under a monarch could truly bte free if the monarch had such absolute rights
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What does John Morrill say led to fears of a popish plot?
Charles I's apparent religious policies
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What is the significance of religion with Qnetin Skinner's liberalism thesis?
Not sole reason but most 'combustible' one
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What are the questions with revisionist scholarship?
Role of religion potentially downplayed with fears of popish plot, religion was feared as much as the implications of royal tyranny (Vallance)
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What do pamphlets illustrate about fears of Catholicism?
Even ordinary people feared potential plot
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Who wrote 'A dissuasive from popery', showing that Catholicism was not wholly tolerated?
A chaplain to Charles I
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What did the Lineage of Locusts pamphlet of 1641 say about the Pope?
"He's neither God nor angel, nor a man/ But a prodigious beast or monster fell/ With all his brood hatch'd or begot in hell"
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What was the year in which the largest number of items published in England to that date?
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What does Edward Toby Terrar see as why Ctholics, specifically tenants, could favour Parliament?
Drew links between 'Stuart monopolies and enclosures' and the measures of Parliament that brought some economic relief in the early 1640s
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Where did most Catholics live?
In the poor north and west of England
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Is the view of Edward Tony Terrar regarding Catholicism convincing?
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Why does the Marxist Hill see tenants in north as being royalist?
Deference to their landlords
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What was the predominant view of historians during the 1980s? (Aylmer)
'religion was the single touchstone, more than any other, which determined people's political and eventually in most cases also their military allegiance"
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What did the Grand Remonstrance and Charles I's response both do?
Make reference to the dangers of popery
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Grand Remonstrance and Popery
"the Jesuit Papists, who harm the laws, as the obstacle of that charge and subversion of religion which they so much long for"
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Charles I's response to the Grand Remonstrance - Popery
"We will with constancy maintain... against all invasions of Popery..."
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Where wee the Catholic gentry most significant, even though they still only comprised 20% of general Catholic population?
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Out of an approximate population of 5 million, how many were convicted recusant Catholics?
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When including those whose prosecution may not have been worthwhile due to wealth, 'church Catholics', how high might the number of Catholics in England have been?
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What percentage of counties responded to the Grand Remonstrance wanting further religious reform or measures against popery?
95% of counties
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What were the county petitions for the Grand Remonstrance national realization of?
Connections between local and national affairs
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What did Clause 189 of the Remonstrance blame bishops for?
'Introduction of popish ceremonial to the church'
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How had the 'introduction of popish ceremonial to the Church' passed in the Commons?
By just 25 votes
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What percentage of the estates of royalist Catholics were to be sold?
2/3, although they could be bought back by trustees
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What was one Catholic priest executed during the Protectorate for?
Charges dating back to the 1620s, before the regime was in power!
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What did Coward say about Catholics?
"Catholics were given remarkable freedom by Cromwell's government as long as they did not threaten public order"
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Name a Catholic who Cromwell was personal friends with
Sir Digby
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What is one argument for why Archbishop Laud was executed?
Political reasons, to assert the power of Parliament, as well as distaste for his religious policies
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What did Parliament hold Wentworth and Laud responsible for?
Leading the king astray during the period of personal rule
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What does Coward say about Charles I's promotion of Laudinism within the church?
Serious error as alienated the Crown from the mainstream of the country
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How did Laud shift the ground of religious orthodoxy?
Imposed Ctholic policies on England first then on Sctoland
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M. Bennett on Laud
"Laud was seen as the principal architect of the innovations of the Church - the downgrading of preaching, the emphasising of sacraments, and the introduction of railed off altars at the east ends of churches"
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What is significant about the railing off of priests?
As if the sacrament is how achieve salvation
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How is railing of altars a direct attack on Calvinism?
Attacks theory of predestination
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Laud's differing views to Puritans over the future of the Church inevitably deepened the contrasting views of the Church. How has Coward described this?
Created what Coward highlights as the development "of ideologiacl differences about the constitution"
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How did Laud abolish a group of Puritan London merchants and landowners who had been buying livings and appointing Puritan preachers to them?
Used the Decree of Star Chamber; ad perceived them as a Puritan plot
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What had Laud sought to impose on Scotland, illustrating his 'popish spirit and wicked intentions'?
Liturgy and rituals of the Church of England
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What can be said about Laud?
Did not seem content with broader range of conformity, wanted specific positions
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What was Laud charged with by the Long Parlaimetn?
High treason, including seeking absolute power for the king
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When was Laud finally beheaded?
10th January 1645
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How could Laud be defended?
Tradition and salvation
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Defending Laud - Tradition
Traditional in the sense that have always had bishops and sacraments
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Defending Laud - Salvation
If believed salvation at risk, more important than being politically popular. King's prerogative should allow him to save subjects
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How could you criticise Laud?
As an adviser to the king he should have put politics first
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Why does Hill want the (Puritan) 'merchant' class to be bourgeois?
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Why does placing religion as important to material concerns help Hill?
Helps identify as a class, and their dissatisfaction with differences in trading. Problematic relationship between merchant class and religion
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What is an interesting topic regarding Marxism and religion?
Surely religion and salvation are more important than olitical econo
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If think predestined to heaven - effect this has
Calvinist bibles show consumed by godliness and religion
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How do Quakers go against the cornerstone of orthodox Christianity?
Do not believe in trinity, think Jesus was a prophet. This is blasphemy
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Where did Levellers come from?
New Model Army
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What was there a divide between in the 1630s?
Arminianism and Calvinism
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What is the issue about Arminianism?
Appears Catholic to certain people
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What happens with the issue within Calvinism in the 1640s and 1650s?
Forced into the open; fracturing of Calvinist beliefs
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How can the importance of anti-Catholicism be used?
Can fall within the debate inside Protestantism rather than against Catholicism; useful in the consideration of national church
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Who were a radical sect during the 1590s as Presbyterian power goes from the elect congregation to elected elders?
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Were Presbyterians radical in 1637?
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When did the English government sign a settlement with Scotland that required the imposition of Presbyterianism?
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How could Presbyterianism be described in 1644?
Potentially among the most conservative as still want to coerce into nationalchurch
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What does Hill believe about class in England?
Greater background of class hostility prior to 1640 than historians have normally recognised. Class antagonism exacerbated by financial hardship
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What period does Professor Bowden describe as economically among the most terrible in English history?
1620 to 1650
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Give an example of where law and order broke down completely?
Gloucestershire - royalists plundered clothiers
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What was the essential doctrine of Anabaptism?
Infants should not be baptised
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In the late 1630s and 1640s what happened to altar rails?
They were pulled down with altars desegrated
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Give an example of someone who believed that the final judgement was on its way in the 1640s?
John Milton
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How was the attempt in the 1640s to replace church courts by a Presbyterian disciplinary system, which was fiercely opposed, later described?
"Egyptian *******"
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How does Durston view Laud's policies?
Linked to outbreak of civil war
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What did the 1653 Barebones Parliament take the radical step of doing?
Redefining marriage as entirely secular undertaking with ceremonies by JPs - Act banning marriage and the registering thereof' passed in August 1653
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How long were marriages wholly secular?
3 1/2 years
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What did many couples do between 1645 and 1653?
Ignore Directory's service and were married by Book of Common Prayer
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Hundreds of couples avoided the marriage legislation by marrying in the five week gap before it became active. How many marriages did several London churches experience according to one newsbook?
More than twenty per day
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Marriages contracted August 1653
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What was significant about the number of marriages contracted in September 1653?
More than double the average monthly total for the decade; 3x the September 1652 figure
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Marriages contracted October 1653
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How did Mark Kishlanksy view the English Revolution?
"born of the axe" and died with death of Oliver Cromwell
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What does Cressy say about English Revolution?
Need to inverse the sequence - to look at the events immediately BEFORE the war for revolution
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Until November 1640 ministers were likely to be censured by ecclesiastical authorities if they failed to read the King's Book of Sports. Under the Long Parliament...
Likely to be singled out for scrutiny if they DID
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How did newswriter Edward Rossingham describe parliamentary sessions in November 1640?
"delivered in such a manner as was not safe to have done of late days"
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What had happened to many of the king's judges by January 1641?
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Known items of print per year in 1630s
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Known items of print per year in 1640
almost 900
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Known items of print per year in 1641
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Known items of print per year in 1642
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What happened after the collapse of episcopal licensing?
Print! For example, 11,000 copies of the Protestation
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What encouraged radicalisation once Long Parliament met?
Identification of so many bishops with Laudinism and euphoria generated by hopes of reorm
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When does Kishlansky think the English Revolution began?
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How did Leveller ideas filter down to the soldiers?
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What is significant about who was speaking in the 1640s?
Men and women of low social status
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When did Charles I abandon Laud?
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What did Charles I claim in 1641?
He was the only true defender of the English Church and ancient constitution which were being threatened by parliamentary innovation
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What is a measure of Cromwell's ability to straddle conservative and radicla opinion?
In 1649 was denounced by the Levellers and in 1653 was a mouthpeice of the radicals
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


When do radical sects emerge?


During the civil war

Card 3


What was significant about the emergence of radical sects?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


People stop wanting a coercive national church, what do they start speaking of?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


When does the debate over liberty of conscience heighten?


Preview of the front of card 5
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