Religion in a Global Context

What are the 6 characteristics of fundamentalism?
An authoritative sacred text, an us and tem mentality, agressive reactions, use of modern technology, patriachy, cospiracy theories
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Why does Giddens argue fundamentalism is a reaction to modernity?
Modernity undermines traditional norms and values. This contrasts with cosmopolitanism which sees lifestyle as a personal choice and emphasises the pursuit of personal meaning and self-improvment
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Why is Giddens criticised?
He ignores other ways gloablisation and modernity affect religon and ignores the differences betweem fundamentalists
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Why does Bruce argue fundamentalism is confined to monothestic religions?
Polytheistic religions have many Gods and lack a single all-powerful deity
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What are the two fundamentalisms?
In the West, fundamentalism is a reaction to change within society. In the Third World, fundamentalism is a reaction to changes being thrust on a society from the outside.
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What is the first phase of Davie's secular fundamentalism?
The 18th century Englightenment Project held an optimistic beleif in the certainity of progress based on science and human reason. This helped to secularise all areas of social life, undermining religious certainties
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What is the second phase of Davie's secular fundamentalism?
There has been a growing modd of pessimism, uncertainity and isnecurity caused by changes such as globalisation since the 70s
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How does Ansell support Davie's secular fundamentalism?
He argues these trends are a form of cultural racism that is about legitimating the exclusion of religious/cultural minorities
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What is Huntington's Clash of Civilisations?
Religious differences are a source of conflict as globalisation has made the nation-state less important as a source of identity, creating a gap that religion has filled. Religion creates hostile us and them relationships, increasing competition
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How does Jackson criticise the Clash of Civilisations theory?
He argues it is an example of orientalism
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What 7 civilisations does Huntington identify?
Western, Latin America, Confucian, Japanese, Islamic, Hindu and Slavic-Orthodox
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What does the World Values Survey Data identify as the real clash of civilisations?
There are great differences in attitudes of divorce, abortion, gender equality and gay rights between the West and Muslim world
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How does Bruce argue the function of religion is cultrual defence?
Religion symbolises a groups collective identity. In Poland, the Church served as a popular rallying point against opposition during Communist rule
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How does Nanda argue the increasing religiosity in Indian is the result of the new found wealth?
Modern holy men preach the message that desire motivates people. These buisness friendly versions of Hinduism legitimate the position of the m/c and allow them to adjust to globalised consumer capitalism
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How does Pentecostalism in Latin America act as a functional equivalent to Weber's Protestant Work Ethic (Berger)?
Pentecostalism demands an ascetic way of life, encouraging members to prosper thus rasining them out of poverty
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What does Lehmann?
Colonisation triggered the first phase of globalisation and it has spread because it gained a popular following from below. Pentecostalism creates new local religious forms, incorporating local beleifs rather than replacing them
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Give an example to support Lehmann
'Africanisation' of Christinaity in Africa
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Card 2

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Why does Giddens argue fundamentalism is a reaction to modernity?

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Modernity undermines traditional norms and values. This contrasts with cosmopolitanism which sees lifestyle as a personal choice and emphasises the pursuit of personal meaning and self-improvment

Card 3

Front

Why is Giddens criticised?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

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Why does Bruce argue fundamentalism is confined to monothestic religions?

Back

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Card 5

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What are the two fundamentalisms?

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