relative ethics

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give 3 strengths of relative ethics
accounts for different circumstances, appreciates cultural differences, prevents one dominant culture having control
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give 4 weaknesses of relative ethics
can't criticise another cultures' morality, no 2 people may agree on a judgement, difficult to apply, reduces 'good' to socially acceptable
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what did Bentham's hedonic calculus include?
Remoteness, Purity, Richness, Intensity, Certainty, Extent, Duration
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what is Bentham's hedonic calculus used for?
to measure the pleasure of an action
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give 4 strengths of Bentham's utilitarianism
clear way of deciding what to do by balancing pain/pleasure, people naturally seek pleasure and avoid pain, considers consequences, ethical code is accessible to everyone
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give 5 weaknesses of bentham's utilitarianism
mill says emphasis on pleasure is animal instincts eg sex/food, doesn't distinguish between pleasures, 'greatest number' means minority ignored, relies on accurately predicting consequences, pleasure for one may be pin for another
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how did Mill criticise Benthams utilitarianism?
disagreed with 'pushpin is as good as poetry' - distinguished between higher and lower order pleasures
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what are Mills higher and lower order pleasures?
higher - satisfy the mind, lower - please the body
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what was Mills basic principle
greatest happiness for the greatest number
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what was Benthams basic principle
greatest pleasure for the greatest number
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explain Mills rule utilitarianism
society should have generally agreed rules for all acts eg no murder
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explain Benthams act utilitarianism
every situation is judges individually, with its own circumstances, and a general rule is deduced from this
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why is benthams utilitarianism called 'strong utilitarianism'?
because he said the rule must be adhered to without exceptions
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why is mills utilitarianism called 'weak utilitarianism'?
because it accepts that in certain situations the rule must be broken
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who developed preference utilitarianism, and who developed it more recently?
RM Hare, Peter Singer
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what is the principle of preference util?
it considers whether an act is something people would prefer in order to see if its right/wrong
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rather than concentrating on maximising pleasure, singers util concentrates on...
minimising suffering
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singer considers the rights of the ...
minority
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give 4 advantages of util
simple/common sense theory to apply, fair/democratic, considering consequences is natural, universal rule for all cultures
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give 4 disadvantages of util
how can you know what gives another person happiness/pleasure?, relies on accurate prediction of consequences, no account taken for someone acts irrespective of consequences, no account for wrong motives leading to right action
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Card 2

Front

give 4 weaknesses of relative ethics

Back

can't criticise another cultures' morality, no 2 people may agree on a judgement, difficult to apply, reduces 'good' to socially acceptable

Card 3

Front

what did Bentham's hedonic calculus include?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

what is Bentham's hedonic calculus used for?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

give 4 strengths of Bentham's utilitarianism

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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