Relationships

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How are relationships formed?
Reward/need and similarity
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What does the reward/need satisfication theory say?
That we are attracted to people who are rewarding/satisfying to be with
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How do operant and classical conditioning link with reward/need satisfaction?
Operant- we learn from the consequences of finding someone rewarding therefore we spend more time with them+ classical- associating people with events that make us happy
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What does similarity theory suggest?
That we like people that are similar to us on attitude and personality and rule out dissimilar people
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What is a strength of the reward/need theory?
It can be supported by the evolutionary approach- our ancestors focused on feelings of reward as it sped up the mating process
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What is a weakness of the reward/need theory?
Reductionist- +over simplified doesn't take into account other ideas such as signs of fertility
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How are relationships maintained?
Social exchange theory and equity theory
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What is the social exchange theory?
The idea that relationships are a series of exchanges of people maximizing their profits and minimizing their costs through comparison level and comparison level for alternatives
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What is the comparison level?
Where we compare our previous relationship with how relationships should be
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What is the comparison level for alternatives?
Weighing up possible rewards from new relationships and ending old ones
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What is the equity theory?
Where relationships are equal with what they put into the relationship and what they get out of it (eg:finances)
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What is a strength of the maintenance of relationships theory?
Real world application- been proven to help within relationship therapy (gottman/levenson- successful/unsuccessful marriages)
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what is a weakness of the maintenance of relationships theory?
Gender differences- some females may see the males career as more important therefore changes her perceptions on what is fair
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What are the two ways to describe the breakdown of relationships?
Ducks model + rollie/ducks model
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What does duck say about the breakdown of relationships?
It;'s down to : 1. lack of skills (social skills) 2. lack of stimulation (boredom) 3. maintenance (long distance)
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What does rollie/duck say about the breakdown of relationships?
There are 6 stages: 1. Breakdown (realization) 2. Intrapsychic (seeing their faults) 3. Dyadic (discussing the problems) 4. Social (advice from friends) 5. Grave dressing (stories) 6. Resurrection (new relationship)
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What is a weakness of rollie and ducks breakdown model?
Ethics- Sensitivity of the subject
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What is a strength of rollie and ducks breakdown model?
Real world application- knowing the stages can help with couples counselling
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What is sexual selection?
Survival of the fittest. There are two types INTRASEXUAL (men) INTERSEXUAL (women)
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What are the short term preferences in regards to sexual selection?
Males want casual sex as it allows them to pass on their genes on a greater scale as they can impregnate more women. FEMALES DON'T BENEFIT FROM THIS BEHAVIOUR
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What are the long term preferences in regards to sexual selection?
They are usually commitment with the aspect of children in the future- women look of: 1. resources 2. physicality 3. potential to pass on to her offspring / males look for 1. fertility and health
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What is a strength of the sexual selection theory?
Clarke and hatfield = used a college campus to ask men and women a set of questions 1. going on a date 2. going home with them 3. sex (found that men were more likely to say yes to questions 1/2 than women)
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What is another strength of sexual selection theory?
Makes logical sense!
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What is parental investment?
An input from a parent of the offspring that helps the child to survive. There are two type (maternal = mum) (parental= dad)
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What does maternal investment include?
choosing the right mate as on a time limit, having to carry the child for 9 months
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What does parental investment include?
males have more opportunities as they don't carry the child, cost of mating is low
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What is a strength of parental investment?
Explains why women cheat - They want to make sure their child has the best genes so they marry a resourceful man but sleep with the best looking (cuckoldry)
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What is a weakness of parental investment?
Many males do invest today- step fathers (looking after children that aren't theirs
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What are the two influences in childhood on adult relationships?
parent/child relationships and peer relationships
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How do parent and child relationships effect adult relationships?
If children don't form a successful attachment to a parent when younger they will find it difficult in the future (continuity hypothesis)
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How can parent and child relationships be supported?
Through HAZAN/SHAVER love quiz(ainsworth attachment types) after answering 1. feeling questions and 2. description of relationship
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Whats a problem with hazan and shaver study?
self report studies- social desirability bias
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Who supports the continuity hypothesis?
SIMPSON (conducted longitudinal study on infants children adolescents and adults, found that securely attached children were more socially competent adults and had more friends
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What is another weakness of the influene of childhood on adult reationships
unstable attachment types- attachment types are found from current relationships which means that life events may alter the attachment type (eg: divorce)
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How can peer relationships influence adult relationships?
they act as a training ground for adult relationships as they include: trust and acceptance
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When do peer relationship become more influential?
Adolescents
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What is a strength of peer relationships?
Animal support - monkeys (however ethics)
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What is a weakness of peer relationships?
gender differences- girls have closer friendships than boys naturally do. This is because boys are more competitive
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How can culture influence someones relationship?(western)
1. urban area- commuting is easy 2. freedom rights 3. love is important 4. we are more lonely when not in a relationship
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How can culture influence someones relationship?(eastern)
1. less geographical opportunity 2. collectivist 3. love isn't important 4.family gain is important
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What is a strength of cultural differences?
Jankowiak/fischer ( love is universal through study's on western tribal societies where love existed in 90% of them)
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What is a weakness of cultural differences?
Increasing urbanization= different attitudes and life chances
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What does the reward/need satisfication theory say?

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That we are attracted to people who are rewarding/satisfying to be with

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How do operant and classical conditioning link with reward/need satisfaction?

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What does similarity theory suggest?

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What is a strength of the reward/need theory?

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