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What are 3 theories of the formation of romantic relationships?
Filter model; Reward/need theory; Matching hypothesis theory
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Describe the filter model of the formation of romantic relationships.
Field of availables & then field of desirables; social/demographic variables, values & attitudes, complementarity of emotional needs
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Describe the reward/need theory of the formation of romantic relationships
Long-term relationship is more likely to be formed if it meets the needs of partners & provides rewards; people come into relationships with unique sets of needs, i.e. self-esteem, dependency & sexual needs
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Describe the matching hypothesis theory of the formation of romantic relationships.
Couples seek to form relationships with the best possible partner they think they can attract; couples who matched in terms of 'social desirability' are more likely to have happy relationships than otherwise
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What is evidence for the filter model theory of the formation of romantic relationships?
Kerchoff & Davis
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Describe Kerchoff & Davis' study into the filter model theory of the formation of romantic relationships.
Longitudinal; couples who had been together at least 18 months filled out ques over a 7-month period; result showed that at 18 months the similarity of attitudes was the most impor factor, with com of emo needs becoming the most impor later on
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How can the filter model theory of the formation of romantic relationships be applied to online dating?
An eHarmony survey showed that couples who got married after meeting online had higher marital satisfaction than ones who didn't; filtering approach taken by dating websites to present compatible partners
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Why is the fact that the filter model is a stage theory a limitation?
Dividing relationships into stages could be argued to be artificial: relationships change & develop, they don't fit into stages
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What is evidence for the reward/need theory of the formation of romantic relationships?
Aron; brain activation of people who claimed to be in love; positive correlation between people reporting to be in love & the activation of dopamine-rich areas of the brain (reward centres); people form relationships with people who reward them
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Why is the reward/need theory of the formation of romantic relationships culturally biased?
In collectivist cultures, rewards are based on the caring for others rather than personal gain; for example, arranged marriages don't share these assumptions
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What is evidence for the matching hypothesis theory of the formation of romantic relationships?
Murstein; participants are shown photographs of real & randomly allocated couples & told to judge them in terms of physical attractiveness; real couples were judged consistently to be similar in terms of attractiveness
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What is further evidence from Murstein for the matching hypothesis theory?
Married couples were significantly more similar in physical attractiveness than dating couples
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What is a limitation of the matching hypothesis theory of the formation of romantic relationships?
No attention is paid to personal needs or preferences
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What are 2 theories of the maintenance of romantic relationships?
Social Exchange Theory; Equity Theory
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Describe social exchange theory as a theory for the maintenance of romantic relationships.
Relationships as transactions, maximise our profits & minimises our losses; commitment to relationship is dependent on the profitability of the outcome
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Describe the 'comparison level' in Social Exchange Theory.
Standard against which all our relationships are judge; 'comparison level for alternatives'
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What are 2 limitations of the SET of the maintenance of romantic relationships?
Abusive relationships, investments are high & alternatives are low, so it is viewed as profitable; culture bias, some suggest that SET only applies to Western cultures where personal profit is more important & social mobility is high
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Describe equity theory as a theory for the maintenance of romantic relationships.
Fairness is important for manti; ind who put effort into rel but receive little in return perceive higher levels of inequity; the higher the inequity, the harder they work to restore equity
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What is evidence for the equity theory?
Canery; ind in rel with lower levels of perceived inequity had higher levels of rel satisfaction than those couples where there was more inequity; high levels of fairness stimulates main in the long-term due to higher satisfaction
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What study contradicts the theory of equity in relationship maintenance?
Clarke & Mills; found that couples prefer to live in a communal fashion, willing to love & care for each other with little regard for striving for fairness; other factors are important for maintenance
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What are 2 criticisms of the equity theory?
Gender bias, cultural bias
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How is the equity theory gender biased?
Males are more likely to strive to rectify inequity whereas females are more likely to engage in extra-marital affairs when this occurs, so males & females should be studied separately
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How is the equity theory culturally biased?
In Hawaiian culture (individualist), there's greater dissatisfaction where there are higher levels in inequity, but in Jamaican culture (collectivist), there was greater satisfaction where there was higher levels of inequity; only apply to west
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What is another study that supports the equity theory? (Clue: Y & B)
Yperen & Buunh
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Describe Yperen & Buunh's study of equity theory.
Longitudinal; printed ad in paper asking for vol to answer ques about equity of their rel; 65% of m & w felt their rel was equitable, 25% felt over-ben & some felt under-ben; 1 year later, those who felt that their rel was equit were more satisfied
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How can equity theory be applied to marital therapy?
Wives are more likely to feel distressed about inequity in their marriage; marital interventions to restore quity have been shown to sustain marital satisfaction, suggesting that equity theory is significant to main of rel
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What are 2 theories of the breakdown of relationships?
SET; equity
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What is a study that suggests poor equity was an important predictor of a breakdown?
De Maris
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What did De Maris' study find about the breakdown of relationships & equity theory?
Longitudinal; women's feelings of inequity in relationship was an important predictor of a breakdown
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What is a criticism of economic explanations of the breakdown of relationships? (SET & equity)
Ethnocentric
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What 3 problems does Duck propose cause the breakdown of relationships?
Lack of skill, stimulation & maintenance difficulties
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What does Cina suggest to prevent the breakdown of relationships which is related to Duck's proposal that a lack of communication affects the rel?
CCET, teaches social skills to promote communication between couples, can increase marital satisfaction & suggest social skills prevent breakdown
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What research suggests that therapy to prevent breakdown, like CCET, should address both gender's complaints?
Lack of stimulation was often cited in relation to ending but gender differences, as females were more concerned about emotional distance & men were upset about sexual withholding
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What are the 6 stages of Rollie & Duck's model of breakdown/dissolution?
Intrapsychic (social withdrawal); dyadic (declaration of dissatisfaction); social; grave-dressing ('saving face' split); resurrection (moves on)
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What is a criticism of Duck's model?
Stage process; ignores uniqueness of relationships & ind differences; doesn't address how the breakdown of rel impacts on ind depending on role they play in the break-up
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What is a strength of Duck's model?
Cognitive/behavioural aspects
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What are 2 theories of childhood influence on adult relationships?
Continuity hypothesis; attachment styles
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Describe Bowlby's continuity hypothesis as an explanation of childhood influence on adult relationships.
Internal working model from rel with primary caregiver; children use this model as basis for developing rel with other people, 'blueprint'
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Describe Ainsworth's strange situation as an explanation of childhood influences on adult relationships.
Strange Situation categorised attachment behaviours; secure, insecure-avoidant, insecure-resistant
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What is support for Ainsworth's attachment types as evidence of childhood influences on adult relationships?
Hazan & Shaver; Love Quiz in N Am paper, 3 desc relating to Ainsworth's categories; results showed a strong rel bw childhood & adulthood, secures' rel lasted twice as long, insecures' exp more divorces
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What is another piece of evidence to support Ainsworth's childhood influences on adult relationships?
Simpson; 78 part; secures' had better peer relationships & were more emotionally attached to partners
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What are limitations of the studies supporting Ainsworth?
Demand characteristics; socially desirable answers in ques;
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What is a limitation of Hazan & Shaver's study?
80 year olds may not provide accurate depictions of childhood
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What study dealt with the problem of socially desirable answers in Hazan & Shaver's study?
Main, Caplan & Cassidy; interview based on the WAY that the part discussed relationships, not just on what they said
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What are 2 other criticisms of the studies into childhood influence on adult relationships?
Nature/nurture, impact of life events is greater, temperament of people is greater; people can 'earn security' and go on to have healthy rel regardless of upbringing
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What are the two variations of sexual selection?
Intra-sexual selection, members of one sex (often males) compete for access to the other sex; inter-sexual selection, members of one sex (often females) choose from the available pool of male mates on the basis of desirable features, good genes
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What is the relationship between sexual selection and human reproductive behaviour?
Charac that are seen as attra are the conseq of SS; intra-SS produces m that are strong which makes them more attrac; inter-SS has led to women preferring m with masculine features (testosterone - efficient immune system - good genes)
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What is a limitation to the explanations of intra/inter-SS in sexual selection?
No direct evidence; can't go back in time to see which indiv passed on genes; not falsifiable or verifiable
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What is the indirect evidence for the influence of sexual selection on human reproductive behaviour?
Penton-Voak et al; women chose feminised version of male face as most attractive for long-term relationship, chose masculine face for short-term sexual rel during high conception risk phase of menstrual cycle SO pref are based on need for good genes
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What is the evidence for preferences in sexual selection that exist across cultures?
Langlois; meta-analysis of 919 studies; agreement between cultures as to who was attractive
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Is sexual selection a good explanation of reproductive behaviour in animals?
Petrie; peacocks have large tails because they're a sign of good genes, when she snipped off a part of their tail they were less likely to be chosen by peahen; BUT other studies found diff res so if isn't true for animals, it can't be true for humans
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What is a broader issue with sexual selection as an explanation of human reproductive behaviour?
Deterministic - Paradox of the lex; doesn't explain why bad genes are passed on; doesn't explain why all men aren't masculine
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What are the differences in parental investment between males & females?
M PI is small, remains fertile, aims to max reprod success by having matings with multiple f part; f PI is substantial, reproductive lives are shorter, lives are aims to max reprod success by ensuring survival of few precious offspring
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What evidence shows the differences between promiscuous males and monogamous females?
Clark & Hatfield; 50% of m & f agreed to proposition of going out that night, 75% of m agreed to sex, 0% of f did; so, m are more likely than f to seek short-term sexual encounters
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What is evidence that supports both sexual selection & parental investment across cultures?
Buss; f desired part who were good financial prospects & ambitious, could relate to bio need for stability bc of greater investment; m desired phy attract & youth, suggesting they're programmed to be more concerned with immed repro success
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What evidence supports parental investment as an explanation of human reproductive behaviour?
Buss; asked m & f part to imagine their current part either having sex or being in love with someone else; m more distressed at sex, f more distressed at being in love, so f have greater emo engagement in rel bc of need to protect investment
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What is a criticism of both sexual selection & parental investment as evol explanations of human reproductive behaviour?
Repro beh is based on co-op, not conflict; repro beh has evolved as part of a pattern of co-op which ensures the survival of ind & species as a whole; nature responds to nurture
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What are 3 cultural influences on relationships?
Setting; individualism/collectivism; tradition
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Describe setting as a cultural influence of relationships.
Western culture allows social and geographical mobility; large number of potential partners to choose from
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Describe individualism/collectivism as a cultural influence of relationships
Western - great emphasis is placed on rights and freedom of ind; collectivist - stress interdependence, interest of group are placed above interests of ind
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Describe tradition as a cultural influence of relationships
Chinese - more respect for tradition; influences appropriateness of rel; greater emphasis on permanence of rel
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What is a challenge to cultural influence research into romantic relationships?
Whether we are right to assume the diff between Western & non-Western cultures
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What is evidence for the idea that Western & non-Western cultures are not that diff in terms of cultural expectations of relationships?
China - move from trad arranged marriages, e.g. 1949 - 70% marriages dominated by parents, 1990 - 10%; women who had married for love felt better about marriages regardless of duration than those in arranged marriages
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What is evidence for universal features of relationships?
Pinker, romantic love is human universal which has evolved to promote survival & repro across cultures; Jankowiack & Fisher, 90% of 166 cultures showed evidence of rom love; Bartels & Zeki, part of brain activates in people who claim to be in love
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Can culture & biology work together in explaining cultural influences to romantic relationships?
Biological changes have evolved alongside changes in culture, e.g. genetic mutation which enables us to digest dairy evolved alongside dev of agriculture
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How much does culture determine the dev of relationships? (Clue: study)
Zaidi & Shuraydi, study of attitudes towards marriage in a group of 2nd generation Pakistani Muslim women brought up in Canada; 20 single women bw 16-30 regarding views on marriage, most favoured westernised marriage involving greater partner choice
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How does free will & determinism come into the debate on how culture influences romantic relationships?
The Pakistani Muslim women in Canada did not reject their heritage culture, but found an accommodation bw heritage & dominant culture; balance bw them; active creators of culture rather than passive recipients; becomes an issue of free will/determ
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Describe the filter model of the formation of romantic relationships.

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Field of availables & then field of desirables; social/demographic variables, values & attitudes, complementarity of emotional needs

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Describe the reward/need theory of the formation of romantic relationships

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Describe the matching hypothesis theory of the formation of romantic relationships.

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What is evidence for the filter model theory of the formation of romantic relationships?

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