Relationships

(Sexual Selection)What is sexual selection?
Why some characteristics appear disadvantageous but actually confer an advantage in Human reproductive behaviour
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(Sexual Selection) What is anisogamy?
difference in males and female sex cell (gametes) Male (sperm):extremely small, highly mobile, created continuosly in vast numbers Female(eggs): large, static, produced at intervals for a limited number of fertile years
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(Sexual Selection) What is Intersexual Selection?
Preffered strategy of female Quality over Quantity Ova are rarer than sperm,more energy to produce. Optimum mating strategy, a genetically fit partner who is able to provide resources. greater consequence of choosing wrong partner for female
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(Sexual Selection)What is intrasexual selection?
preferred strategy of the male,Quantity over Quality. male reproduces and gets to pass on his genes, Anisogamy dictates male optimum strategy is to mate with as many women as possible. Minimal energy is required to produce enough sperm to fertile lot
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(Sexual Selection)Evaluation- Support for Intersexual selection?
Female choosiness is a reality of heterosexual relationships. 'I have been noticing you around college. I find you very attractive. Would you go to bed with me tonight' 0% F aggreed 75% male did immediately. Females are choosier than males.
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(Sexual Selection)Evaluation- Ignores social and cultural influences on Partner Preferences?
Womens greater role in workplace, no longer dependant on men. Change due to social norms. Mate preferences may not be resource orientated. Limited explanation, ignores its outcome ofboth culture and evolutionary.
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(Sexual Selection)Evaluation- What is the support from the lonely hearts adverts?
American newspaper, Opportunites for F and M to describe the qualities in a potential partner whilst saying what they have for offer. Women = offered indications of youth and attractiveness. Men = offered resources and sought youth.
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(Self-Disclosure) What is self disclosure?
In the early stages we want to learn, seem to like them more.By revealing ourselves, share our likes and dislikes. Plays a vital role in a relationship beyond initial attraction. Careful about what we disclose at the start of a relationship
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(Self-Disclosure) What is the Social Penetration Theory?
Theory of how relationships develop. Gradual process of revealing inner self to someone. Involves reciprocal exchange, this is a sign of trust. to go further must reveal sensitive info. Increasingly disclose they penetrate more deeply into each other
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(Self-Disclosure) What is Breadth and Depth?
As both increase, partners become more commited. Metaphor of the layers of an onion. Reveal superficial information - low risk that we'd tell anyone. Breadth is narrow as many topics are of limits. Reveal too much we threaten relation.
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(Self-Disclosure)What is meant by Reciprocal?
once you disclose something that reveals your true self, hope partner responds in a way that is rewarding - understanding and empathy. Balance of self disclosure in successful relationships increasing intimacy and deepens.
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(Self-Disclosure) Evaluation - What is the Real Life applications?
People who want to improve communication. Use it deliberatley and skillfully to increase intimacy and strengthen bond, 57% gay men and women said open and honest disclosure was the main way they maintained and deepened their relationship.
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(Self-Disclosure) Evaluation - How is this not true for all cultures?
Depends on type of self disclosure. Review of research regarding sexual disclosure. M and W in USA self disclose more than M and W in China. Linked to satisfaction. Limited explanation. Not necessarily generalisable.
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(Physical Attractiveness) What is the importance of Physical Attractiveness
evolutionary. symmetrical faces - honest sign of genetic fitness. Baby faces - trigger protective or caring instinct. Must be an important feature after marriage and several years
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(Physical Attractiveness)What is the halo effect ?
preconcieved ideas about personality traits of attractive. Sterotype, widely accepted. 'whats beautiful is good'. kind, strong, sociable. positive towards them,
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(Physical Attractiveness) What is the matching hypothesis?
Common sense tells us we cant all have attractive. Assessment of own looks to choice partner. Realistic judgement. Choice is a compromise. Fullfill needs without being rejected by someone out of our league.
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(Physical Attractiveness)Evaluation - What is the research contradicting the matching hypothesis
Study of activity logs of popular online dating site. Real life test of the matching hypothesis. Measured actual date choices and not preferences.Sought meetings who were more physically attractive , did not consider own level of attractiveness.
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(Physical Attractiveness)Evaluation - What is research support for the halo effect?
Physically attractive people rated as more politically knowledgeable and competent. Even happened when people knew they had no expertise. Dangerous if politicians judges as suitable merely on looks. Applies to everyday life.
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(Physical Attractiveness)Evaluation - What is the problem with individual differences?
Rate how much theyd target indivual based on photograph. Questionairre called MACHO scale. meaurse sexist attitudes. Scored highly on the scale were more influenced by the physical attractiveness. Low scores were less sensitive
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(Filter Theory)What is the Filter Theory?
Field of availables - set of potential romantic partners we could realistically form a relationship with. Not everyone available is desireable. Narrow down to a field of desireables.
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(Filter Theory)What is the Social Demography?
Geographical location, social class, education, religion. The key benefit of proxmity is accessibility. Realistic field is much narrower because our choices are constrained by social cirumstances. too 'different' is discounted. Homogamy = similar.
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(Filter Theory)What is Similarity in Attitudes?
share important beliefs and values, field of availables has already been narrowed. Important for those who have been in a relationship for less than 18mnths. Need for them to agree on things that matter to them. Encourage greater communication
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(Filter Theory)What is Complementarity?
Ability to meet each others needs. Have traits the other one lacks. More important in long term couples. Feeling that together they form a whole, adding depth to a relationship.
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(Filter Theory)Evaluation - What is supporting research?
Assumes key factors change. Makes sense and agrees with most peoples experience. Evidence that similarity of personality, traits are typical of the earliest stage. Partners that happilymarried complentarity is more important that similarity
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(Filter Theory)Evaluation - What is failure to replicate?
Many studies failed to replicate original findings. Social changes over time, difficult in defining depth of a relationship in terms of its length. 18month cutoff between short/long term. Assumed long term were more commited.
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(Filter Theory)Evaluation - What is the problem with the direction of cause and effect?
Initially attracted because they are similar. Evidence to suggest causality is wrong. Longitudinal study, cohabiting partners became more similar in emotional responses. Attituded into line over time, similarity is an effect not cause. Not predicted
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(Social Exchange Theory) What is the social exchange theory?
Minimise loss, maximise rewards. Judgement on profit level. Rewards - what we get, sex, companionship. costs - what we give up, stress, time. Opportunity costs, lost alternatives.
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(Social Exchange Theory)What is the comparison level?
Amount of reward you believe you deserve to get. Experience of previous relationships and social norms. Low CL will be satisfied with gaining a small profit. Someone with high selfesteem will believe they are worth a lot more and will have a high CL.
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(Social Exchange Theory)What is the Comparison Level for Alternatives?
SET predicts we will only stay in our current relationship only as long as we believe its more rewarding than alternatives. If costs outweigh rewards then alt. become attractive.
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(Social Exchange Theory)What are the four stages of relationship development?
1)Sampling - explore concepts of profit. 2)Bargaining - exchanging and negotiating rewards/costs. 3)Commitment - rewards/costs become more predictable and stability ensues. 4) Institutionalisation - marks the setting of norms of relationship
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(Social Exchange Theory)Evaluation - Inapproprate assumptions?
Fails to distinguish two types. Exchange - work colleagues - do involve social exchange. Communal -romantic - dont involve counting the rewards/costs continously. SET claims reciprocal activities are monitored but not true for real relationships.
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(Social Exchange Theory)Evaluation - Direction of cause and effect?
SET argues dissatisfaction sets in when we suspect costs outweigh rewards. Could be we dont measure costs/rewards until we are dissatisfied. Research - rated highly comm. less time looking at attractive people. SET cant account for direction of cause
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(Social Exchange Theory)Evaluation - SET ignores equity?
Research for the role of equity in relationships. Neglect of this factor means that SET is a limited explanation which cannot account for a significant proportion
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(Equity Theory) What is the equity theory?
economic, fairness, both partners level of profit is the same. Equity lacks - over benefit(guilt, discomfort)/underbenefit(anger, resentment). Satisfaction -percieved fairness. Not size but ratio. Involve negotiations to ensure equity. Trade offs
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(Equity Theory)What are the consequences of equity?
problems arise when one puts a great deal in but gets little out. Inequity - dissatisfied
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(Equity Theory) What is the changes in percieved equity - consequence?
Most dissatisfied if we percieve a change in the level of equity over time. Happy to contribute more at the start of the relationship but if the relationship continues with one person putting more in, it will feel less satisfying.
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(Equity Theory) What is dealing with inequity - consequence?
The partner who feels put upon will work hard to make relationship more equitable aslong as they think relationship is salvageable. Unfair - harder to restore. Cognitive - revise perception of r/c so feel more equitable even if nothing changes
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(Equity Theory) Evaluation - What is the supporting research evidence?
real-life relationships. more valid than SET. survey of 118 recently maried, two self-report scales. 16-45yrs, been together 2yr before marry. Couples who were more equitable were more satisfied. Confirms central prediction, increasing its validity.
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(Equity Theory) Evaluation - What is the issue with cultural differences>
Assumes need for equity is universal because its fundamental feature, Collectivist - needs of wider come first, more satisfied when overbenefit Individualist - prioritise individual, most satisfied when fair.True for men/women. limited/ unwarranted
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(Equity Theory) Evaluation - what is the issue with individual differences?
Not everyone is concerned with equity. Less sensitve. Benevolent - prepared to contribute more than they get out. Entitleds - deserve to be overbenefitted. Equity is not a universal feature of all romantic relationships and not a global law of intera
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(Rusbults Investment Model)What is Rusbults investment model?
This is a development of SET. Satisfaction - based on CL. compared r/c. Generally satisfied if get more out than they expect. CLalt - 'could my needs be better met outside my current relationship'. Dont just include people could be no relationship
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(Rusbults Investment Model)What is the investment size?
Affects an individuals commitment. Anything we lose if ended. Intrinsic - resources we put directly in, money, energy, emotion. Extrinsic - Dont originally feature but become associated,children, possessions, shared memories
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(Rusbults Investment Model)Why is commitment more than just satisfaction?
It explains why dissatisfied partners may choose to stay in a relationship. dont want to see commitment go to waste, so instead work hard to maintain and repair damaged relationship
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(Rusbults Investment Model)What are relationship maintenance mechanisms?
Dont engage in retaliation but instead act to promote relationship. Put partners interests. Forgive them for any serious transgressions. Thinks about partner unrealistically, and negatively about tempting partners.
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(Rusbults Investment Model)Evalutation - What are the methodological strengths?
Relies on self report measures such as questionairres. Appropraite because it is not the objective reality of factors such as investment size. What matters is the individual partner perceptions of these factors. Your belief that you have made investm
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(Rusbults Investment Model)Evaluation - How does this theory explain abusive relationships?
Odd that any rational person in a violent relationship would stay. 'Battered' women at a shelter most likely to return to an abusive partner reported making the greatest investment and having the fewest attractive alternatives
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(Rusbults Investment Model)Evaluation - How does the theory oversimplfy investment?
More than just rewards. At the start of a relationship few investmentsare made. Extension to Rusbults model by adding the investment partners make in future plans. Limited because it fails to recognise the true complexity of investment
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(Ducks Phase Model)What is the phase model?
a model of relationship breakdown - argued that ending relationship is not one off event but a process that takes time.
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(Ducks Phase Model)What is the Intra-Psychic phase?
something has to change. individual cognitive process. broods on reasons for dissatisfaction, partners shortcoming. private but may share with trusted friend. pros and cons, evaluate against alternatives. begin to make plans for the future
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(Ducks Phase Model)What is the Dyadic phase?
interpersonal processes. cant avoid talking about relationship, series of confrontations, aired. determination to break up or a renewed desire to repair.
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(Ducks Phase Model)What is the Social phase?
wider processes including the couples social networks.. made public. seek support and make pacts. Mutual friends expected to choose a side. point of no return, momentum driven by social forces
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(Ducks Phase Model)What is the Grave Dressing phase?
Aftermath. make up a story of the breakdown. maintain a positive reputation, showing partner in a bad light, retain social credit, blame everything but themselves create a personal story rewrite history. conclude its time to get a new life
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(Ducks Phase Model)Evaluation - How is this model oversimpflified?
A fifth phase? 'resurrection phase' was added. Ex partners turn attention to future relationships using experiences from one that recently ended. one phase to another isnt inevitable, return to an early point in process. focus on breakdown not phases
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(Ducks Phase Model)Evaluation - What are the methodological issues?
Research is reterospective. talk about experience after breakup. not accurate. early stages tend oto be distorted, hard to study, involvement could make things worse or even end a relationship that couldve been rescued. lacks research evidence
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(Ducks Phase Model)Evaluation- How does this model have real life applications?
Helps to identify and understand stages of relationship breakdown but also reversng it. repair strategies are effective at certain points. Intrapsychic phase people could be encouraged to focus on brooding positives. relationship councelling
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(Virtual Relationships in Social Media) What are virtual relationships?
internet use has increased, more interest in CMC. variety of electric communication.
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(Virtual Relationships in Social Media)What is the reduced cues theory?
CMC are less effective that FtF as they lack cues we depend on. Non verbal - appearance. Emotional - facial expressions. leads to deindividuation, reduces sense of selfidentity, encourages disinhibition. Blunt/aggressive communication. reluctance dis
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(Virtual Relationships in Social Media)What is the hyperpersonal model?
CMC more personal and greater self disclosure. develop quick self disclosure, more intense and intimate. End more quickly, high excitement doesnt match level of trust. Boom and bust.
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(Virtual Relationships in Social Media)According to the hyperpersonal model, what is selective self-presentation?
More time to manipulatr their online image. control over disclosure to promote intimacy. Anonymity - aware that people dont know your identity, less accountable, disclose more to stranger than intimate partner
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(Virtual Relationships in Social Media)What is the absense of gating~?
Obstacle to formation. Physical unattractiveness. dont occur in CMC, develop to the point self disclosure is frequent and deeper. refocus attention, away from superfical. Free to create identies online.
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(Virtual Relationships in Social Media)Evaluation - What is the lack of research support for reduced cues?
Wrong to suggest nonverbal cues missing from CMC. different rather than absent. online use different cues such as style and timing. Time to reply to a social media update is more intimate than immediate response. Acrostics, emojis are effective subs
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(Virtual Relationships in Social Media)Evaluation - What is the research support for hyperpersonal model?
some are 'hyperhonest' some are 'hyperdishonest'. wealth of evidence. Q's asked online are direct, intimate. FtF is hedged around 'small talk'. support central assertion of model. designed to present ourselves in a positive
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(Virtual Relationships in Social Media)Evaluation - How is there being different types of CMC a problem for the model?
Extent and depth vary. Social network, people have relationships offline aswell. Online dating - CMC with complete stranger. Self disclosure is reduced, both commutors anticipate future FtF meetings, not a consideration in chatrooms. CMC not sing con
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(Parasocial Relationships) What are the three levels that were developed from the celebrity attitude scale.
Entertainment social - least intense, viewed as sources of entertainment and fuel for social. Intense personal - intermediate level, greater personal involvement, frequent obsessive thoughts, consider them a 'soul mate'
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(Parasocial Relationships) What are the three levels that were developed from the celebrity attitude scale.
Borderline pathological - strongest, uncontrollable fantasies and extreme behaviours. spending a large sum of money on celebrity-related items, or willing to perform some illegal act
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(Parasocial Relationships)What is the Absorption-addiction model?
explain peoples tendency to form parasocial relationships in terms of deficiences in their own lives. Weak sense of self identity and lack fulfillment. Allows them an 'escape from reality' to find fulfillment.
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(Parasocial Relationships) What does absorption mean?
seeking fulfilment in celebrity worship motivates the individual to focus their attention on celebrity, to become pre-occupied in existence and identify with them.
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(Parasocial Relationships) What does addiction mean?
Individual needs to sustain their commitment to the relationship by feeling a stronger and closer involvement. Results in more extreme behaviours and delusional thinking. want feelings to be reciprocated.
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(Parasocial Relationships)What is the attachment theory explanation?
Tendency to form in adolescence and adulthood due to attachment difficulties. Insecure resistance - most likely, they need unfulfilled needs to be met but without the threat of rejection, break ups. Insecure-Avoidant - avoid rejection of relationship
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(Parasocial Relationships)Evaluation - What is the supporting evidence for the absorption-addiction model?
link between celebrity worship and body image. females report an intense-personal with a female celebrity they admired tended to have a poor body image. May be a precursor for eating disorders. correlation between the lvl of worship and poor function
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(Parasocial Relationships)Evaluation - What are the problems with the attachment theory?
Mccutheon meausre att types and celeb related attitudes in 299p. Insecure attachments no morelikely to form parasocial relationships than those with secure. against the central prediction - doubt validity.
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(Parasocial Relationships)Evaluation - What are the problems with methodology?
Sel report can be bias - respond in a way that enhances their social status, social desirability bias. Use of correlational analysis - cant conclude that intense-personal causes young women to have a poor body image. Issues with validity.
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(Sexual Selection) What is anisogamy?

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difference in males and female sex cell (gametes) Male (sperm):extremely small, highly mobile, created continuosly in vast numbers Female(eggs): large, static, produced at intervals for a limited number of fertile years

Card 3

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(Sexual Selection) What is Intersexual Selection?

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Card 4

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(Sexual Selection)What is intrasexual selection?

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Card 5

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(Sexual Selection)Evaluation- Support for Intersexual selection?

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