Relationship

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Who developed the filter model of attraction?
Kerchoff and Davis
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What does the filter model state?
We filter potential partners from a field of elidgables
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What are type of filters we use?
Proximity, familiarity, simiarity, physical attractiveness
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What is proximity as a filter?
Where we live and work influences the friends we make
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What did Festinger find?
People make friends with people closest to them, next door:41% two doors down:22% & Opposite ends of hallway:10%
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What are problems with this research?
Measuring friendships not relationships, we look for different criteria in dating to friendships, all men at uni, as women were not allowed in Uni in 1950
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What is exposure as a filter?
The more often people are exposed to an object the more positively they evaluate the objects, we like familiar things as they make us feel safe and happy, which is rewarding
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Who discovered the reward/need satisfaction theory?
Bryne and Clore
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What does the reward/need satisfaction theory state?
We like those who reward us and fulfil our needs, we have 7 basic needs which need fulfilling, if someone fulfils them they satisfy them which is rewarding
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How do we form relationships through operant conditioning?
We learn to feel good directly eg by sex, being friendly, smiling or being positive
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How do we form relationships through classical conditioning?
Indirectly by associating them with pleasant circumstances, for example associate feeling good with people near by
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Why is the reward/need satisfaction theory deterministic?
It assumes people are selfish and are only concerned about reinforcements they receive
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Who discovered the social exchange theory?
Thibault and Kelley
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What does the social exchange theory state?
We maintain a relationship if it is rewarding, we attempt to maximise rewards and minimise our costs
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What is the comparison level?
When we meet a new partner we compare them with this to see if profitable, it includes memories of past experiences and what we can expect in future, profitcomparison level=current relationship
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Why is the social exchange theory reductionist?
The theory breaks down complex relationships down to a number of basic social interactions, profit and gain
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Who discovered the equity theory?
Messick and Cook
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What does the equity theory state?
People strive to achieve fairness in a relationship and become distressed if they perceive unfairness, what is considered fair is subjective for each partner, it is not about equality!
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What happens if there is inequity?
We are motivated to restore the equity which can be done by changing how much we put in or amount we demand, we can use the comparison level at this stage
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What are methodological problems with the maintanence theories?
Most research is into both theories has been done on university students so it cant be generalised to other population
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What are the factors in Duck's theory of predisposing and precipitating factors?
Lack of skills, Lack of stimulation, Maintanence difficulty
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Why can lack of skills cause breakdown?
Lack of interpersonal skills can include being a poor convosationalist, poor at indicating their interests in people and unrewarding in interactions. Lack of social skills means others perceive them as uninteresting, tend to break down quickly1
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Why can a lack of stimulation cause breakdown?
SET states people look for rewards in a relationship which includes stimulation, Baxter states it results in boredom and often causes breakdown, we expect our relationships to change and develop
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Why can maintenance difficulties result in break down?
There is a strain when partners can not see each other enough, going away to university can cause a strain. Maintanence difficulties can become overwhelming and the relationships break down
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Why is there gender differences in breakdown?
Women more likely to stress unhappiness and incompability as reasons for dissolution, men usually upset about sexual withholding and women have more desire to stay friends where as men want to cut loses and move on
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What are the parts of Rollie & Ducks model of breakdown?
Breakdown, Intra psychicprocess, Dyadic process, Social process, Grave dressing process, Ressurection process
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What is the Break down process?(S1)
Person being distressed with relationship, inequitable relationships likely to dissatisfy more than equitable one, leads to intra psychic process
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What is the intra psychic process?
Nothing is said to the partner, brood and focus on relationship
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What is the dyadic process?
People confront partners and discuss feelings and future, relationship may be saved or begin to involve others in disatisfaction
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What is the social process?
Spills over network of friends and family, others may take sides offer advice or support, may speed up dissolution,after this we attempt to justify actions, each partner must present themselves to others as being trustworthy and loyal
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What is the grave dressing process?
Interpret their view of of partner
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What is the resurrection process?
Prepare themselves for new relationships, redefine themselves and build on mistakes
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What is sexual selection?
Evolution formed to reproduce and pass on genes, by mating with someone with healthy and attractive people the offspring would be of high quality
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What is intra sexual selection?
Males and females compete, whichever male wins can pass on genes and they become more dominant
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What is the peacock theory?
Males have characteristics (eq bright tail) to attract females, men compete and women do the choosing
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What is intersexual selection?
Looks at the preferences for each sex, what they look for in a partner
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What do males want?
Wide pelvis is a sign of fertility and reproductive values, put emphasis on physical attraction and youth
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What so females want?
Wealthy males will be able to provide resources for offspring, older males are more mature and likely to have wealth.
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What did Buss do?
Explored what males and females look for in a marriage, women desired males who had good financial prospects, men placed emphasis on physical attractiveness and youth
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What are short term mating preferences?
In society today men are known for wanting casual sex and try to seek it early in a relationship, so have a stereo type for being after one thing, women are more careful about who they sleep with as have to invest time into offspring
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Why do males have decreased attraction towards partner after sex?
Evolved strategy for ensuring they dont spend too much time with just one woman, the less time he spends with on woman the more time he has to find someone to impregnate
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What is parental investment?
Any investment by a parent into an offspring that increases the chance that the offspring will survive
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What did Triver find about sexual selection?
Males and females dont invest equally, females initially invest greater as eggs are less numerous and more costly than sperm, females must be more picky, they choose for quality not quantity, females can only produce 1 child a year
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What is maternal investment?
Females have more certainty of being parent so can afford to invest more, minimum amount of time female can invest 9 months, females worry of emotional infidelity results in redirection of resources and protection
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What is paternal investment?
Males can be reluctant to invest more due to fear of cuckloldry, dont want to invest in child of another man, minimum investment is a few moments of copulation and sperm, worry of cuckoldry and sexual infidelity
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What did Bowlby state about the effect of internal working model on adult relationships?
Creates a schema of relationships, tells us how to form a relationship, our primary attachment figure promotes this
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What did Bowlby state about the effect of the continuity hypothesis on adult relationships?
If secure attachment you'll have a secure relationship and continue forever which is never broken, this can lead to attachment disorder and can cause someone to hold view sex without love is pleasurable
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What did Fraley find?
Correlation between attachment and relationships from between 0.1-0.5
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What did Shaver state about parent child relationships?
3 things influence out later relationships: care giving, attachment type and attitude towards sexual experiences
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Why is childhood friendship important to adult relationships?
Learn from other children, romantic relationships in adolescents,develop sense of their own value as a result of interactions with others and determines how they approach adult relationships, transfer trust form care giver to peers
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Why are romantic relationships in adolescents important to adult relationships?
Achieve goal of separation from parents, all them to get a type of emotional and physical intimacy different to parents
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What did Nangle suggest?
Children's friendships are training grounds for important adult relationships, close friendships characterised by affection, alliance and intimacy, including share secrets and personal info, promoting trust and acceptance important in later relation
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What did Madsen find?
Moderate to low frequency predicted higher quality young adult relationships, heavy dating predicted poorer quality, some dating in adolescents are advantaged but too much can be maladaptive
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what are characteristics of western culture relationships?
Individualistic, take responsibility and make own decisions, emphasis is on personality of partner, rich affluent countries more opportunities for individuals, they have broader social network and means to travel away
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What are characteristics of non western cultures?
Collectivist cultures are part of family social group, decisions influenced by obligations to others, poor countries need to pool resources so dependant on others
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What are voluntary relationships?
Western cultures have predominant urban settings with easy geographical and social mobility, we voluntarily interact with a large number of people and they have a high degree of choice in relationships and great pool of potential relationships
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What are unvoluntary relationships?
Non western cultures have few large urban centres and less geographical and social mobility, people have less choice about whom they interact with on a daily basis, interaction with strangers are rare and relationships are frequently tied to factors
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What is the importance of love to Western and non western based cultures?
Their relationships are based on freedom of choice, Less likely to marry someone without love, where as non western cultures are less likely to marry for love
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What did Levine find?
Asked Ps whether they'd be willing to marry someone who had all the qualities they desired but did not love, US respondents expressed a reluctance and 14% said they would, where as in individualistic such as India 24% & Thailand 34% = love is luxury
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Card 2

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What does the filter model state?

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We filter potential partners from a field of elidgables

Card 3

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What are type of filters we use?

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Card 4

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What is proximity as a filter?

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Card 5

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What did Festinger find?

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