Regenerating Places

What are the different economic sectors?
Primary (working with land, sea), Secondary (making products), Tertiary (services), Quaternary (research and development)
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What are the different types of employment?
Employed/self-employed, part-time/full-time, temporary/permanent, gig economy, 0-hour contracts
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What sectors and types are found in Hereford and Birmingham?
Hereford: more agriculture, more public administrators. Birmingham: more manufacturers, more transport and communication workers
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What is IMD?
Index of Multiple Deprivation: measures deprivation in England (1=worst, 22,8444=least deprived), based on income, employment, health, crime, quality of environment, derelict/ abandoned land
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What IMD ratings are Hereford and Birmingham?
Birmingham, 2010: 3rd decile. Hereford, 2010: 5th decile. Birmingham, 2015: 4th decile. Hereford, 2015: 4th decile (higher decile is better). Hereford has better health, more households own 2+ cars, fewer households with unemployment.
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What changes have occurred in the city of Hereford?
Railway competition forced canal to close, route for new City Link Road identified, site for new munitions factory and creation of workers' houses.
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What changes have occurred in the city of Birmingham?
Expanded infrastructure, new HS2 rail project, WW2 bombing left many derelict buildings, council identified new 'learning quarter'.
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What has Hereford inputted into the world/region?
Bulmer's/ Weston's cider, Hereford cattle, SAS, literary and historical tourism, BBC Hereford and Worcester
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What outside influences have inputted into the Hereford?
Chinese, Tai, Indian restaurants, Polish migrants, short-break visitors, NHS and Nuffield patients
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How does Google portray Hereford and Birmingham?
Hereford: rural, grassy, sports, black and white houses, cathedral, Hereford bull, horses, maps. Birmingham: modern, urban, colour, bright, multicultural, shopper, concerts, museums, Bullring, no animals, railways.
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How could you describe Hereford's sense of place?
Old (black and white, quaint, market, cathedral, Mappa Mundi, cobbled), agricultural, safe, less academic, elderly, bad traffic, Welsh border
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How could you describe Birmingham's sense of place?
Pride in industrial history (metal music, public art, Peaky Blinders, canals), pride in accent, civic pride (maintained older buildings, 'second city'
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San Francisco Bay
Successful, high in-migration, low unemployment (3.6%), diverse, expensive houses, low crime, young population, skills shortages= high demand for workers.
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Napa Valley
Rural, successful, premier wine region, low unemployment (4.2%), driven by immigrant labour which makes up 1/3 population.
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Rust belt region, declining, was once industrial heartland, then manufacturing moved to Asia, labour went to robots, highest out-migration of all American cities, 26.6% loss in population in 12 years, 27% unemployed in 2010
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Detroit (2)
400,000-140,000 steel factories, high suicide rate, 10% diabetes, high crime rates, but 80-90% high school graduates, some high house prices
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East London 2012 Olympics- problems
High unemployment/ low pa, high high school drop out rate, companies relocating, no youth development, gang problems, knife crime, Newham salary of £20,000, Canary Wharf salary of £100,000, derelict land, lacks affordable housing, 1/4 overcrowded
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East London 2012 Olympics- economic development
Economic: link Stratford to Europe by train, 1 million square feet new office spaces, 50,000 new jobs, use 95% old materials in new construction. l
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East London 2012 Olympics- environmental development
Environmental: sustainable Games, public spaces, park from Hertfordshire to Thames, bury electricity pylons, recyclable and degradable materials, public awareness, clear contaminated soil and land, 95% old materials used.
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East London 2012 Olympics- social development
Youth construction schemes, Construction College, Streets of Growth offer 8 month plumbing/ electrical training for local estates, £8000 compensation for displaced residents
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East London 2012 Olympics- social development (2)
Olympic homes re-used as social housing, 2000 children use facilities, £50,000 to Devon's Lane estate to develop sports facility.
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East London 2012 Olympics- negatives
250 business demolished, some could not afford to re-establish due to higher land values, businesses close or move out of city, Clays Lane demolished (450 people), a travellers site and student accommodation, social housing sold to pay Olympic bill
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What is civic engagement?
People participate in community to improve quality of life for them/others, can shape community's future, e.g. voting, knowing about MPs, charity work, organising events, petitions, environmental work, donating, food banks, protests
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What is political apathy?
People unwillingly accepting conditions in which they live and feeling powerless to do anything. Although many living in poor conditions do act through political engagement.
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What are some voting patterns in the UK?
1992-2001 election turnout 77.7%-59.4%, Scottish Independence Referendum 85% turnout, 13% higher interest in politics, 23% greater certainty to vote and 9% grater political knowledge in Scotland than UK average,
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How might globalisation impact engagement?
Some groups may feel resistant towards changes of globalisation, which may change political agendas, can also increase mobility of minority groups.
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What did an electoral commission find?
Those who experience social deprivation tend to be most politically excluded, these factors reinforce each other over time.
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How do non-white communities impact engagement?
Dispersed into many different regions, loyalty to region may outweigh loyalty to ethnicity, also leads to political extremism e.g. EDL protests in York, 2013-- although they were diffused by individuals who opened dialogue between different people
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What is clicktivism?
Organising a protest on social media, showing support for a cause, campaigning, sharing
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Why may there be conflicts between long-term and short-term residents?
Longer people stay in an area the more attached they become, want tor retain place's original image, may clash with new residents who want to change/ alter the place.
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What are lived experience and attachment to place?
The actual experience of living somewhere, can affect perception, values, development and world outlook. Attachment includes concepts of identity.
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What factors influence levels of engagement and lived experience?
Membership (acceptance/belonging), influence, length of residency, level of deprivation, age, gender, ethnicity
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Give some examples of factors influencing lived experience and engagement?
Sport e.g. football teams, music, politics e.g. devolution, Brexit, local councils, citizenship tests
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What are some causes of conflict in communities?
Lack of political engagement and representation, ethnic tensions, inequity, studentification and gentrification
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What is studentification?
Concentrations of low-income, exuberant, unmarried, young people, may have less regard for environment or long-term residents, university towns, Houses in Multiple Occupation (multiple door bells, 'to let', unkempt gardens, poor maintenance)
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What is gentrification?
More affluent people move into a location, regeneration led by individuals who form growing, influential communities, married couples, young professionals, mid-high income, e.g. pressure schools, police, business, well-maintained, skips, posters
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What are the positives and negatives of gentrification?
Improvements to property, develops community, greater awareness of issues, cleaner, less noise, more money to spend on services and businesses.
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Hereford's rural-urban fringe
Zone of transition from urban to rural around a settlement, contains features from both, Bovis Homes proposed 135 homes near Lugg meadow, 2014. Herefordshire Council rejected, Bovis appealed, inspector of public enquiry declined it.
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James Turner Street, Birmingham- media representation- negatives
Negatives: 95% unemployed, appear lazy, drug users, alcohol addiction, shop-lifting, high crime, prison is a 'second home', poor environment for children, litter, swearing, lack of literacy
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James Turner Street, Birmingham- media representation- positives
Community feeling, some look for work, give each other odd jobs, diverse (13 languages), friendships, no racial issues, happy children with the focus on them.
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How does the media influence regeneration?
Decision makers, planners, councils and geographers must assess the people's general perception of an area to decide what needs changing.
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How does the media influence regeneration?
Media may reflect and change this general view. Media can attach stereotypes to places e.g. New York as exciting but lonely e.g. 'Empire State of Mind' song, or 10,000 photos by Brandon Stanton to capture people's identity there.
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What forms of media can be used to represent places?
Newspapers, TV/international news, documentaries, YouTube, local blogsites, estate agents, tourism promoters, local enterprise offices, postcards, graffiti
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What is a retail-led management strategy?
Challenges to high street shops comes from competition from out of town centres and internet shopping. National government provided £1 billion subsidy to ensure high street growth
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What is a retail-led management strategy? (2)
Demand for leisure and specialists means high streets should focus on a mix of bars, restaurants, cafes, beauty services and gyms.
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What is a tourism and leisure-led management strategy?
Individual initiative, e.g. B+Bs, Centre Parks, leisure centres, skate-parks, heritage themed activities like the Titanic or outdoor activities in areas like Saint Davids. Often have previous land use like Forest Holiday's trees once used in building
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What is a culture-led management strategy?
Liverpool regenerated Docklands using the Beatles: 2 million visit, spend £400 million a year, Beatles museum regenerated the Albert Dock. Many people visit an area due to its association with music, literature, art, writers, e.g. Bronte country
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What is rural-diversification?
Economic development of non-agricultural activities or a livelihood which has multiple, part-time components, government provides subsidies, EU has payment schemes to support, often down to individuals as 1% UK owns 50% land, 50% farms have it
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What is re-branding?
Marketing aspect of regeneration designed to attract business, residents and visitors.
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What is re-imaging?
Making a place more attractive and desirable to invest, live in or visit.
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What sort of regeneration is used to re-brand a place?
Economic: improve infrastructure like roads, railways, pipes, telecon networks. Social: hospitals, housing, leisure, schools. Hard regeneration: capital investment, physical building and infrastructure. Soft regeneration: skills and education.
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Why do infrastructure projects require government investment?
Due to their high cost and longevity.
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What players are involved with infrastructural development?
Infrastructure and Projects authority: oversees long-term projects, secures private investment. Department for Communities and Local Government: empowers locals to shape their own places.
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What players are involved with infrastructural development? (2)
Department for Culture, Media and Sport: markets UK image abroad, promotes culture, heritage and innovation. UK Trade and Investment: supports UK businesses and encourages inward investment.
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What players are involved with infrastructural development? (3)
Other: councils, pressure groups, charities, environmental groups, businesses, individuals.
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High Speed Rail (HS2)
London-Manchester in 67 minutes, each train carry 1000, London-Birmingham, Manchester, Leeds connected, component of Northern Powerhouse regeneration, cost £55.7 billion- £80 billion, lowers carbon footprint, not all benefit but all taxes contribute
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High Speed Rail (HS2) (2)
Many houses must be demolished, no compensation for house devaluations e.g. due to noise from nearby rail, even further North see no benefit.
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What strategies do different governments implement?
Conservative: capitalist, privatisation. Labour: socialist, nationalisation. Post-war: Labour, mass building of council houses.
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'Right to buy'- Thatcher
In 1980s Thatcher: occupants can buy council house after 7-years at a low price, can then sell for much more (1.5mil sold, resulting in a lack of council houses and councils lacked the money to build more.
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What are some planning laws?
All new developments must contain some social/affordable housing, 40% of greenfield and 30% of brownfield
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What are some house building targets?
250,000 new houses, not yet met the target, 30% affordable housing in new developments.
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Permits issued by government, only one exits, but many exploratory have been granted.
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What is the role of local governments in regeneration?
Local authorities compete with others to attract investors and skilled workers. Local plans are developed which designate specific areas for development called enterprise zones.
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What are the benefits of enterprise zones?
Business: reduced taxes, guaranteed planning permission for expansion. Economic: multiplier effect, more industry. Locals: access to services, better infrastructure, more jobs. E.g. Merry Hill shopping centre West Midlands.
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De-industrialised city, areas in decline, 25% lost jobs. Developments: Bull Ring, Star City, Aston Science Park, Brindley Place.
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Custard Factory
Few prospects for creative graduates who left for areas like Camden, Bristol or Bath. So the old custard factory was regenerated into a modern, youthful and creative sector.
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History of regeneration- phase 1
1960s-70s redevelopment, rebuilding bombed areas, slum clearance, brutalist architecture, e.g. Hulme Crescents Manchester
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History of regeneration- phase 2
1980s Thatcher, large scale urban corporations, property-led, money spent on purchasing land, attracting private investors, little/no local consultation on what they wanted
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History of regeneration- phase 3
1997-2919 New Labour, pro-public sector, social housing, local democracy and 'active citizenship', public opinions, New Deal for Communities empowered people
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History of regeneration- phase 4
Coalition Conservative government since 2010, less government funding and outside investment available.
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What is rural change?
Shift towards wider rural developments, e.g. ecosystem services, preserving cultural landscapes, post-production economy although agriculture is most important use, tourism
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What is farm diversification?
In times of low income farmers seek alternative income, e.g. B+Bs, wind turbines, buildings into offices/workshops. EU subsidies and grants encourage alternative business instead of growing surplus food.
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Bronte Country
West Yorkshire, East Lancashire, visit to experience bleak desolation described in Bronte novels, Fair-Trade way links villages to show historical and countryside sites, farms have EU subsidies to diversify e.g. Skipbridge farm B+B, weddings glamping
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International migration
Governments either restrict or encourage migration, impacts potential for growth and indirect or direct investments, e.g. migration encouraged after WW2- windrush generation
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What are reasons for governments encouraging migration?
Increase GDP, fill skills shortages, migrants willing to work hard for less, stabilise ageing population, earn, spend, pay tax
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What are reasons for governments restricting migration?
Taking jobs, drain services, sponge off benefits, influenced by arguments by public and media.
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London Olympics- successes
Linked to Europe, 1 million square feet offices, 50,000 new jobs, sustainable, public spaces, parks, ugly pylons buried, contaminated land cleared, 95% old materials used, 5000 jobs at Westfield shopping centre, £8,500 compensation for those evicted
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London Olympics- successes (2)
Construction courses, e.g. Streets of Growth, some Olympic houses used as social housing, 2000 children use facilities, success of Foreman and Sons Salmo Smokers business, £50,000 to Devons Lane for sports
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London Olympics- successes (3)
GCSE pass rate 47%, 2009- 62%, 2015, violent crime 6.1/1000, 2009- 3.1/1000, 2012
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London Olympics- failures
Social cleansing (forced out working class, middle-class moved in), young single mothers evicted from hostel and re-housed in other cities, lost sense of place (east-end, rustic feel), Westfield competition caused 90% decline in local shops
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London Olympics- failures (2)
250 businesses demolished, 450 people lost Clays Lane, travellers site and student accommodation, social housing sold to pay Olympic bill, 250 out of Carpenters Street, lacked community engagement
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Plymouth- urban success
Relied on Navy employment, now relies on innovation and culture, government invested millions, 1200 jobs created, £670,000 to regenerate coast, new university marine building, Royal William Yard creative space
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Plymouth- urban success (2)
Working-class not evicted, range of houses to buy, affordable homes, new graduates remain in area
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Rural issues
Need to diversify as agriculture doesn't produce enough income, poorer infrastructure, restrictive building policies force young into urban areas, poorer health, education and retail services, threats to environment from tourism and agriculture
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The Eden Project
Top-down project, on Cornish coast, clay mine closed and 2000 jobs lost, educated people left area= reasons for project, 1000 rainforest species introduced in huge globes.
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The Eden Project- success
3000 at peak time, 420 employers, 645 construction workers, spends £12million on local business, improved infrastructure, 6% unemployment drop
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The Eden Project- failure
Did not replace all 2000 jobs lost, cost £141 million, tourism fatigue on local communities (congestion increased 13%, parking, litter), entrance costs too high, not entirely sustainable (resource consumptive, pollution).
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Earth Centre, Doncaster- failure
Ex-colliery redeveloped into environmental tourist centre, cost £55 million, failed to attract many tourists, closed in 2004, now an outdoor childrens' centre and the car park a housing scheme which is more beneficial to locals.
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Llanmadoc, Gower- success
Remote Welsh coastal town, 150 locals paid £5000 for new shop, post office and cafe, run by 30 volunteers, very successful and beneficial for tourists, moved into larger shop, given grants from Welsh government and Swansea council.
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Causeway Coast, Northern Ireland
World Heritage Giant's causeway, Game of Thrones land, bottom-up projects encourage agriculture, specialist markets helping local food, crafts etc. North Atrium Community set up to retain local identity
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Causeway Coast, Northern Ireland (2)
Top-down: £8.5mil to rurual business, £55,000 to 100 farming families, 40 new businesses, 400 jobs, 3% economic growth, activity-based tourism, 10% tourism increase, 200,000kW/h renewable energy, conserve historical sites.
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Causeway Coast, Northern Ireland (3)
Conflicts: new buildings degrade scenery, proposed a £100 million gold resort which was opposed by National Trust and UNSECO, arguably too many tourists in the honey-spot location.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What are the different types of employment?


Employed/self-employed, part-time/full-time, temporary/permanent, gig economy, 0-hour contracts

Card 3


What sectors and types are found in Hereford and Birmingham?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What is IMD?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What IMD ratings are Hereford and Birmingham?


Preview of the front of card 5
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