Reformation to Revolution- Rural Life

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  • Created by: Heather
  • Created on: 17-04-17 10:42
Where do the vast majority of people work?
In the countryside
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What was the most important sector of the economy?
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Why did they have a long summer vacation?
To help with the harvest- Grain harvest was th most important time of the year,
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What term is used by medieval historians to describe people working the land?
Peasants, not farmers
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In France, what was the name of a small scale 9usually tenant) farmer?
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What was husbandman in England?
Tenant farmer (owns litle if any land)
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Where is the husband man in the social scale?
Just about okay- Not starving but nearly
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Who was a Yeoman in England?
Landowning farmer
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What is their place in the social status?
They are doing 'okay' and weren't rich but they go up in social status at the end of the period,
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For the significance of agricultural and rural society, wha does Hindel argue about how many Europeans live in the countryside?
He argues that at the end of the medieval ages, most europeans lived in rural surroundings
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What percent os the population live in the countryside?
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How many does Kamen argue in Western and central Europe in 1600 lived in the city?
Less than 5% of people lived in some hundred cities of over 20,000 inhabitants
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Why is rural society significant based on food?
They are Europe's food supply
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Describe agicultural methods and farming systems?
Generally unsophisticated and labour intensive,
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What was the effect of volatility and vulnerability of production?
It has far-reaching implications for the whole European economy,
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What led to outbursts of withc accusations and witch hunting?
Diseases among animals and crops
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Who was often accused?
Often a particular village woman who had long had a reputation for being able to caus eharm by magical means, often by cursing or simply glancing at her victim,
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Why has wtichcraft been associated with women?
As they were traditionally in charge of many life-giving and nurturing processes, such as chidbith, cooking and caring for the sick,
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What affects grain prices, which leads to less what due to lack of work?
-Cold and wet summers and a bad harvest, -Less employment in the countryside as labourers aren't going to be employed
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What does Hindle argue about environmental conditions and and example?
Conditions were highly varied, randing from Atlantic to harsh continental climates; from costal regions and fertile plains to mountainous areas,
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These bad harvests have what effect on the population?
It weakens their resistance to disease and epidemcis
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What lands such as those where were of huge political and strategic significance?
Fertile land such as those in France,
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What did these lands need to be protected from?
Destruction or occupation from enemy lands,
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What was a significant way to capture the land?
Starve the people, leading to less employment, less food and so rising prices,
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What time is military time and the potential danger of this?
During the summer, when all the crops are coming out,
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Even in peace time can fertile areas be guaranteed to provide food?
No cant't be guaranteed to provide a sufficient food resource year after year due to unsophisticated and labour intenstive systems,
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What did Hindle argue were prominent European products?
Included barley and wheat in the north, olives and grapes in the South
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What imports were there from the New World?
Maize from the late 16th century potatos towards the end of the period
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What was the vast majority of population's diet?
Ceneral-based bread and little meat,
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What was constant rhythms were characterisitc based on food?
Rhythms of plenty and want,
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For rural life and agricultural roles, what are the four main sectors?
1) Arable, 2) Pastroal, 3) Westlands, 4) Woodlans
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What is arable land?
Land used to group crops (think South, East)
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What were major grain producing areas?
Prussia, Poland, Ukraine,
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Baltic grains were sold in major European markets such as where?
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What is pastoral land?
Land used to rear livestock (think North, West)
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Where is there particularly good cattle?
In Hungary and Denmark
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Where is there particular good sheep?
In Spain and England
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What is Woodland?
If not cleared to farm, timber and game
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Where was this used?
Across Europe- but especially in Central and Eastern Europe
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What is westland?
Inland for fish, fowl, reeds (not on high seas)
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Where abouts is this land especially?
Especially in low lying areas
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What types of secotrs does Hindle identify?
Low landed fielden zones, upland pastorla zones, woodland and moorlands,
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Farming could be practised on open fields, whcih was usually across how many fields where tenants held what type of land?
-Usually across three or common fields, -Tenants held strips of land in scattered,
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how was there an increase in severalty?
Land enclosed by hedges and ditches over which the landlord exercised absolute rights in property and tenants lost traditional privileges of grazing stock
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Local agrarian economies were gradually becoming integrated how into what?
Integreate by processes of specialisation and interdependence into regional national and even internation markets for food and consumer goods,
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Who were links provided by?
Markets for agricultural product
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Was there a single European market for economic goods?
No but a series of regional markets in which very large scale operations were possible
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For rural life and family, if you weren't an elite, what would you look for in a marriage and why?
'May hills' or manure to show the farmer has plenty of healthy cattle, farmers with land and crops,
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Who worked out of the fmaily and how long did they work?
All the family worked, -They worked hard: 7 days a week, most daylight hours, especially during planting and harvest time,
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Who looked after the sick, ill and elderly?
Therewas little spare capacity,
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What was the life expectancy in many areas?
Very low, as low as 35
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Was this higher or lower than the life expectancy of those living in the towns and why?
Better than the average town dweller- They catch diseases from London which they have no immunity to,
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What does Cameron argue was the most common form of household in West Europe and what was it?
Nuclear household, centred on a single married couple and their children
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What was the most common type of family in SOuthern France, Italy and parts of Austria?
Household was extended, and more likely to contain more than one marie couples,
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Regardless of geographical location,s poorer peasants were likely to live how?
In small and simple households, often with livestock incorporated at close proximities,
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Who was the head of the household and what was his role?
-Male head, -Controleld household resources and was owed obedience by his wife, children and sevants, and represented the household in communal politicals
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Was patriarchal authority a norm then in rural households?
It was more absolute in theory than practice,
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What does sixteenth century court records show about the power peasant women had in the household?
They had the power to disrupt the household harmony and to make their husbands' life miserable by scolding them or by cooking them indequate or irregular meals,
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What suggests that women's contibutions to the household economy were vital?
-Praise for their talents as keepers of house and livestoc, -Martial relationship being more of a partnership than hierarchy
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For livestock and yeilds, what was the name of the breed of cows which werean ancient breed and describe it?
Red Ruby Devon- Much smaller, less milk and mroe ofr meat
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What do cows need to do?
Breed so more cows can be produced
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What did Cameron argue about what peasants did with Livestock to show their importance?
Livestock was so important that peasants created and used herbal and magical remedies to protest them against diseases and witchcraft,
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What historian emphasised the importance of harvest?
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Depending on the weather, what typical size might be expected to feed a family of five?
Typically sized 20 acre holding,
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What agricultural economy providing a precarious life for farmers and why?
Yes- With budgets teetering on the margins of balance. It was questionnable if they could pay rent moeny for land,
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What were many farmers thus dependent on?
Selling goods and labour service to their landlords,
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Therefore, what was bound up in the quality of harvest?
Economic fortunes of the household,
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Were poor harvests common?
Yes- Years of scarcity were common
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In the period between 1480 and 1620, how many harvests could be classified as poor?
1 in 4
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The fear of creeping malnutrition if nto actual starvation, stalked most of Europe until what?
The agricultural evolution of the late 18th and early 19th centuries,
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What historian discussed rural social relations?
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WHat circumstances of those who farmed varied widely?
E.g. nature of their tneures, terms on which they held their land, size of farms,
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AS few as what percent were English farmers with owner- occupiers, with the rest what?
25%, -The rest were tenants of either individual or institutional landlords,
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For tenure, what was there a distinction between based on these circumstances
Those who held land on customary terms and those who paid commercial rent,
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Describe the custom way of tenure?
Landlords and tenants might enjoy various privileges but they would more usually be guaranteed in a local manorial court in which tenants enjoyed various rigths- Descendants of serfs
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For tenure, how did commercial rent begin?
BEgan with labour surplus and rising prices encouraging landlords to be more demanding of their tenants in order to maximise their incomes
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By the end of the 16th century, what was the problem with leasehold land?
it was so expensive that only very substantial farmers coudl afford to purchase it
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Which country became the most commercialised in Europe for their land market?
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As farm sizes varied, why did larger farms emerge?
As the marked shortage of tenants caused by the demographic contraction of the late Middle gaes
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Therefore what happened to land ad new tenants?
Land gradually accumulated into fewer and fewer hadns,
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What does Cameron argue is the most impotant social tie in rural areas?
The strong sense of localism was prevalent in the network offered by the village
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What three things did villages often offten based on communal resources?
It also often offered a share in the use of communal resources (such as common arable and pasture land and woods), communal farming implements and serices of village herdsman
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How did the vast majority of peasants gain their land?
They rented ands from their lords, although they were often able to bequeath it,
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Cameron identifies three types of tenurial agreements. What was the first form based which was the most common in England?
A simple annual payment of rent was rarest
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What was the next baed in Southern France and Italy?
An arrangement in which the lord gave his tenant a half or third of the seed or livestock to farm and the tenant returned half or third of the product,
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What is the last type of agreement based in western and central Europe ?
Tenants were obliged to pay an annual rent with an additional bundle of dues and to fulful certain labour services,
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How were rents paid?
In cahs, or more commonly, with labour services which became rarer in the 16th century,
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For Kamen, what does he argue was a big part of the village that played a crucual role in all aspects of economic and social life and an example of how?
-Community in the villag, -Exploitation of the soil would sometimes be on a communalist basis: poughland and pasture were periodically redistributed among households,
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For strategies for survival, whatwere the three types of inheritance methods?
1) partible 2) Impartible 3) Primogeniture
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What does Cameron suggest partible inheritance is/
it was practised in certain parts of England, Western France and sourth western Germany where the principle of equal division was based on the local dictum 'as many mouths, so many pounds'
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What is the definition of impartible inheritance?
When the lucky son gets everything and then the rest cease to become part of the farmign family and instead labourers.
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What is the positive of this method?
Stops land being divided so less expensive
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However, what was the problem with impartible inheritance?
It could cause bitter rivalries betwettn the privileged heir and less privileged siblings who had to leave the family home to find work or stay on, unmarried, as resident servants
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Although what was the problem with partible inheritance?
it risked the division of holdings into economically unviable units,
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When did this method work best?
When there soil was most fertile and where peasants could draw on common resources of pasture, woodland and water as well as their own land,
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What is the definition of primogeniture inheritance?
Normal system of inheritance- Oldest inherits, usually the son,
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What is the fourth rare type of inheritance that occurs in some parishes where the youngest son inherits?
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For any survival method, what does Cameron argue at times of war and death peasants do?
They might flee their land, usually to the nearest town, to petition their lords for help in rebuilding their community,
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FOr trends and patterns in western rural society, what were there threats to?
Rural livelihood,
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In Medieval times, what system would peasants operate under?
Feudal system
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What was the feudal system?
Peasants were tied to the land which is owed by the Lord and he would use the crops for this own economic gain, and expected to take up arms for his lord,
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What rights to they have under this sytem?
THey need permission to marry, aren't allowed to leave the farm without his permission- Known as serfs,
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These obligations were shed in the early modern period. What did Lords prefer to do now/
Lords prefer to rent the land to peasants so are no longer tied to the land,
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However, did feudalism survive in western rural society?
Yesi n some areas such as in France,
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What happened to land later in the period which threw people out?
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What was land now used for?
For animals for pasture
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Therefore Western rural society became increasingly what?
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Wat does Kamen argue about polarisation?
he argues the important cause of the decay of autonomous village communities was decaying much of Europe was the polarisation of wealth within the village, creating a growing number of landless families, often tax-exempt elite,
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For trends in rural society in Eastern rural society, in the east, what was reintroduced?
A 'second serfomd'- Up to 1500 there is little differences in peasants role,
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What rights do peasants have?
They need permision to marry and in some areas Lords have control over their life and death,
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What was Eastern nobility's relation to the monarch?
Less subservient to monarchs
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What was there a lack of among peasants to improve conditions?
Lack fo collective action among peasants,
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Although as uprising localised, did serfs escape and what happened to them?
Serfs could escape and some became rich merchants, although they could be pulled back to work and the gentry could take over their business,
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For comparisons between the two, in the east there was a second serfdom- What was the similarity in the West?
Increasing poverty and economy- As the markets dry up and farmers specialise in a certain crop and theres no need for it, it could lead to poverty,
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Therefore in both societies, what continues in btoh societies?
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What was there an huge increase of people moving to and why?
Huge icnrease of people moving into towns as most have to find work,
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What was a problem with this?
greater demand on rural workers- More crops needed to be cultivated and increase in population mean rising in land prices as more land needed,
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How did England try to stop this movement?
With legistlation but this didn't stop them,
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What is the American 'Brenner Debate'?
Criticises historians who talk about the expansion of population and how it stabilises itself,
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Why do they criticise this argument based on how the industrial revolution began?
Society moves from feudalism to capitalism- land owning classes beginning to exploit peasants is deliberate- Large scale farming leads English agriculture to be successful, and exploitation leads to capitalism
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Who has a theory on crops and grain prices?
Andrew Appleby
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Waht does Appleby argue about crop and grain prices?
Localised prices were stable and there wasn;t mass malnutrition,
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Where is this different to?
France where people are starving,
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Where does Reynolds ague feudalism remained a characterisitc?
In most of Eastern and some of western Europe
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For conclusions, rural life was significant in terms of what?
Demography, culture, society and economy
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The ability of a region to maximise food production and cope with bad harvests had a direct effect on what?
Th demographic and economic stability of that region,
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This had direct consequences to what?
Politics and the military
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Why did they have a long summer vacation?


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What term is used by medieval historians to describe people working the land?


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In France, what was the name of a small scale 9usually tenant) farmer?


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