Reformation to Revolution- Popular Protest

  • Created by: Heather
  • Created on: 16-04-17 01:57
What do we mean by 'popular'?
People below the level of aristocracy and below rulers- Often the poor
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While it was often the poor, was it exclusively the poor?
No- Often protest was conducted and led by the middling classes, the tax payers,
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Therefore, the popular are who based on political power?
The majoirty of the poplar without political power, the voiceless who have little say for policy,
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What do we mean by protest?
Group petitioning in large scale movements such as revolts, revolutions or riots,
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Therefore when does protest occur?
When those without influence have been pushed too far and want ot be heard,
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What does Kamen argue about disorder and what is reflected in society?
-It was a permanent aspect of social conduct, -it reflected stresses and dysfunctions in a usually stabilised society,
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Therefore, was Protest normal?
yes and therefore frequent
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What ar the four types of riots?
1)Socio-economic riots, 2) Tax riots, 3) Religious riots, 4) Political/ election riots,
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For socio-economic riots, what can these include in towns and countryside?
Towns- Food riots, Countryside- Grain riots and enclosure and other land use riots,
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How does Kamen describe rebellion in the 17th century?
The first great year of continent wide rebellion
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Where in England were riots occuring against enclosures?
Midlands
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What was a tax riot?
Reaction against taxes,
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What is involved with religious riots?
Reformation and counter-reformation,
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For political/election riots, why did these occur?
Bribery during elections were high, so many people rioted. If they lost the election and felt robbed, they may riot, often at a constituent level,
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What other types of riots can there be?
Ones related to more specific causes e.g. Riots when the calander changed,
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What three riots did kamen identify?
1) Bad harvests 2) Extraordinary taxation, 3) Soldiery
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Whp divided French socio-economic riots into three categories?
Louise Tilly
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Give the three socio-economic riots?
1) The urban market riot 2) The entrave or rural grain riot 3) Taxation Populaire
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For the urban market riot, where did it take place and who was it usually aimed at?
-Cities, -bakers
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What form of rioting did the entrave or rural grain riot take and what were they rioting for?
-Took form of the local farming communities, -Rioting to stop grain being moved from their area to big cities
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For taxation populaire, what did this organise?
The redistribution of food and setting of own prices
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How did rioters do this?
It involved the rioters taking or looting stocks of grain and selling it back to the community at a fair and just price,
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What is Elliot's view that riots have only one cause?
"With our ears staining to catch one particular theme, there is always danger that, amidst the general uproar, other notes and voices will go unheard"
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Arguably, some historians say what has always had a part in riots?
Religion,
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Despite popular protest being so common, what was the act that made riots ilegal and when was it introduced?
Riot Act 1714
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What did it say about what a riot was?
'Any persons to the number of twelve or more, being unlawfully, riotously...assembled together, to the disturbance of the publick place"
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For big picture reasons for why popular protest was so common, why was it common based on religion?
Massive religious upheaval which causes uncertainty,
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Why was it common based on nation states?
Centralisation/ rise of nation states causes isolation,
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Why was it common based on move from feudalism?
Move from feudalism to a market economy causes competition,
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Why was it common based on food and needs?
Food now following need of merchants rather than need of communities,
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Who were the losers of these changes usually?
The poorest with little say in government polict,
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What are the two main reasons for socio-economic riots?
1) Population growth, 2) harvest failures and shortages
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For population growth, how does Mary Wiesner Hanks describe the population situation?
'The increasing population meant there was no shortage of tenants, and landowners raised fees, fines and rents"
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How much does she argue rent may have increased by in Engand?
They may have increased ninefold between 1510 and 1640
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Due to population growth, where was there pressure in cities?
Pressure on housing,
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Why was it often in cities where there was housing shortages?
Due to mass migration of people into the city looking for work,
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What move was there from skilled to unskilled labour?
Moved from labourers who were working in a area with skilled work to unskilled workers looking for work
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As there was a large amount of labour available, what did this mean for wages?
It meant there was a fall in wages, and often people dependent on this,
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What also increased due to pressure on housing?
Rent,
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What did prices going up, rent going up and few stable jobs lead to?
Poverty and vulnerability lead to angry people,
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For harvest failures and shortages, what type of cause is this?
A immediate cause,
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What was the main problem in the 16th century?
Mini ice age
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What years was a particularly bad time for harvests?
Mid 1580s, particularly 1585-7
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What was also happening at the same time?
Politicial crisis in western Europe, as well as wars in France and Netherlands,
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For example, describe a riot in 1585 due to a bad havest?
-Authorities raised price of bread and authorised exportation of flour, -May an angry mob lynched one of the magistrates responsible- Body mutilated and dragged through the streets, house and belongings destroyed,
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What was the main problem in the 17th century?
Storms and wet summers,
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What years in Europe does Kamen argue are ones of agarian crisis?
1647-8 as well as in England 1646-49,
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What areas were often less affected by harvest failures and why?
Agricultural areas as they had their own means to grow resources for themselves,
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Therefore, in the city they coudn't grow their own resources. Where did most riots start and why?
On market days as often prices can be seen and many wealthy men may be there buying food in bulk and many people on market day,
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Describe the 1629 riot for grain in England?
Grain brought by merchant and to be shipped out of the country- 200 women stormed the ship and beat up the captain, forcing the grain to be returned,
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Food rioters didn't regularly kill people, but often in England what did rioters do?
Often in England grain, flour and food would be seied and resold at the right price,
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When is one of the largest food riots in Britain after the 7 Years war?
1766 food riots,
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How many uprisings were there and examples of where?
30 popular uprisings e.g. Norwich, Nottingham, Leicester, bath
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What escalated and enlargened the scale of the riots?
Newspapers who had lack of reports after the war,
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For tax riots, what about taxation was a new and growing idea?
Regular taxation,
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what was the problem with this new and growing idea?
it was open to change and vulnerable to rumour,
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Taxes provided obviosu targets. Who were they?
Taxes were administered by middle men,
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Where in the early 17th century were there many riots against tax collectors?
Normandy
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How does Davis define a religious riot?
"any violent action, with words or weapons, undertaken against religious targets by people who are not officially and formally agents of political and ecclesiastical authority'
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What does the modernist historian idea look for in religious riots?
'Real causes', often causes that weren't religious,
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What is the historical debate around this?
Arereligious riots just socio-economic riots in a fancy disguise?
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What are the two occasions where riots might occur?
-Public processions, 2)icons, symbols or buildings,
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Who might religious riots target?
Sermons, members of the clergy,
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Give an example of a Netherlands riot in 1566
Protestants opposed to use of religious images and objects so in protestant riots, church decorations and windows were targeted,
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What was targeted on both sides of riots?
Books
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What could a religious aspect do to the scale of a riot?
Turn it from small scale to large scale riot,
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Religious rioting was motivated by what, with what target and what could they become?
-Ideologically motivated, -Specific targets, -More violent,
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What was a less frequent type of disorder which included riots?
Revolt
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Tensions might turn into revolt under what 2 circumstances?
1) When the protest escalated from a local to universal plane, 2_ When there was an outrage or threat to moral conscience of the community in the form of a violation of norms,
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What was the classic popular revolt and when/
German peasants revolt in 1525
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what was this revolt?
it was confined to neither Germany or the peasants but was rather a vast unintegrated wave of protest that that swept over the whole of central Europe
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For the ritual of rioting, how did rioters see themselves?
Doing the authorities' job for them, doing their own justice and defending the community,
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What were rioters often keen to show?
The legality/legitimacy of what they were rioting about,
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What does Kamne argue about the leaders and inspirers of uprisings?
They were often drawn from the rural elite, urban artisans and nobility,
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Why might Lords and nobles join a riot?
Lord- To protect their communities, Nobles- Wished to rescue their people from taxation and political authority of the state,
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What are five things in which their inspiration came from?
-Times of emergency, -Examples/ precdents in popular culture, -Copying authorities' methods, -Religious sources, -Conservatives, not revolutionaries,
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In the brea riots of Paris, how did the rioters portray themselves and what diid they argue?
-Portrayed as betrayed buyers, -Argued that distributing bread after taking it was doing the authorities job they failed to do,
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While rioters were radical, why weren't they due to their motives?
they wanted to protect their way of life, and the authorities to fit their role to ensure their food is distributed,
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What is much rioting characterised by?
A hope to return to the ideal past,
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What does Kamen argue is a common misapprehension about popular uprisings?
That they wer violent and rioters were doers of evil and enemies of the community,
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How did Plumb describe people's riots?
'burning, looting and destruction by the mob were commonplaces of life."
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How did Hibbert describe people's riots?
"reasons for riots were of little concern to the mob, which joined in for the fun or the looting, the chances of free drink or free women"
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However, what historians have questionned this and how?
Thompson- "legitimising notion"- men and women were defending traditional rights and customs,
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What are four reasons why riots and more 'normal' manifestations of discontent developed into more?
1) nationalism 20 Participants with a different agenda, 30 Changing socal/ class involvement 4) Changing circumstances 5)Religion
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For nationalism, did all of rioters have to share this view?
no- Those who didn't share the same goals and weren't in the group such as criminals, unemployed labourers, drunkards, could throw themselves into riots for personal gain,
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For participants with a different agenda, who did this onclude?
Criminals, and people outside the community, Drunkards,
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How did rioters view these people?
They wanted to be separate from them as it often changed their riot aims and could lead to harsher reactions,
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For changing social/ class involvement, what was the link between classes?
'Pressure from below' and support from elites,
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However, society wasn;t linked with ties of class consciousness- what were they tied with?
Patronage and clientage
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A riot isn't one class trying to overcome a higher one, but is what instead?
For those without political power,
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Give Elliot's example of why increasing elite support could have a negative efect?
1640s/50s- Period where Elite and monarchy were strained which could have determined if the riot could turn into an outright rebellion
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For changing circumstances, what led to success for riots and what led to failure?
Success- Momentum, Desperation- Failure,
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What also led to larger riots based on newspapers?
False information, rumour and panic
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For religion, how was the idea of revolt presented?
As a 'purifying mission'
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In most religious riots, what ws more serious and led to violence?
Destruction of images- Most religious riots was often highly ritualised violence,
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For the response of the authorities, how did the government respond to the 1735 paris bread riots?
Single rep of gov came to negotiate but didn't actually ofer anything. Armed group of government militia men sent in to surround and threaten rioters and was stopped by state charging at rioters,
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How did authorities stop the riot in 1647 in Canterbury?
large military regiment sent by the state to charge on horseback as well as German rioters,
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Overall, did the response of authorities make things better?
No, it often made things worse,
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How does kamen describe authorities reaction and resistance?
Resistance to authority was continuous an often limited in scope,
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To conclude, what are the patterns in popular protest? (2)
-bad harvests, -People dircting anger towards Gov and those in charge
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What are some of the changes in popular protest (3)
-Rise in literacy-petitions, -Readign newspapers and broadsheets which could escalate the riots, -Religious developments,
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Card 2

Front

While it was often the poor, was it exclusively the poor?

Back

No- Often protest was conducted and led by the middling classes, the tax payers,

Card 3

Front

Therefore, the popular are who based on political power?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What do we mean by protest?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Therefore when does protest occur?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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