References for International Staffing

Widmier et al, 2008
Retrenched career opportunities, acclimatisation of expatriates to new culture
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In order to work efficiently expatriates need to adjust and modify their behaviours to the new culture
Clark et al, 1999
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Traven, 2006
Exercise direct control within subsidiary, the firm tries to incorporate headquarter's culture, values, norms and goals into foreign subsidiary.
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Expatriates are transferors of knowledge and experience
Yang, 2007
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Mayrhofer & Brewster, 1996
Ethnocentric staffing can lead to efficient communication between foreign units and home country
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If local staff are unqualified or career development is scarce it is easier to implement home HRM policies.
Tayeb, 1998
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Some firms should still employ an ethnocentric approach rather than changing to a more "developed" approach, for example, this may be most suitable in smaller organisations.
Mayrhofer & Brewster, 1996
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Case of Jules-Rosette
If expatriates are held in the foreign country too long, they will be unable to train due to adaptation to local culture.
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Example of a polycentric approach
Starbucks - empowers employees to make decisions without management referral and are encouraged to think of themselves as part of the business. This increases the commitment of each employee from subsidiaries and strives innovation.
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The view of expatriates can be broadened while reducing the adaption problems and the opposition to strangers
Mayrhofer & Brewster, 1996
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Peterson et al, 1996
Costs for managing expatriates overcome costs associated with local incomes, e.g. due to expatriate incentive package
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Kopp, 1994
Headquarter's should however prepare local nationals who have essential skills for managerial posts, e.g. through training.
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Keegan and Schlegelmilch, 1999
Geocentric approach seeks to create a global strategy that is fully responsive to local needs and wants
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Wiktor et al, 2008
Geocentric approach is a uniform approach to all national markets
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Geocentric approach is somewhat an inevitable necessity for any firm operating in the world's largest markets.
Bartlett and Beamish, 2010
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Schong, 2008
Use regiocentric strategy to address both local and regional needs.
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Regiocentric approach assumes all countries in the region can be regarded as a single market. This allows for much greater economy of scale than polycentric approach
Wiktor et al, 2008
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In order to work efficiently expatriates need to adjust and modify their behaviours to the new culture

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Clark et al, 1999

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Traven, 2006

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Card 4

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Expatriates are transferors of knowledge and experience

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Mayrhofer & Brewster, 1996

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