Reductionism vs holism

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What does reductionism argue?
That all psychology can reduced to simple parts.
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What does it say behaviour is determined by?
Determined by only 1 factor.
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What are the strengths of reductionism?
Allows you to look in detail at components that can affect behaviour. Can explain explain certain types of behaviours. Scientific and open to testing.
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What are the weaknesses of reductionism?
Over simplifies complex behaviour, ignores other factors, breaks down complex phenomenon into simple explanations.
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What are 4 types of reductionism?
Physiological reductionism, genetic reductionism, social reductionism and environmental reductionism.
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What is physiological reductionism?
Argues that ll behaviour and experiences can be explained by biological factors e.g. hormones or the nervous system.
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Describe genetic reductionism
Reduces all causes of behaviour to genetic inheritance.
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What is social reductionism?
Argues all behaviour and experiences can be explained by the effect of groups on the individual.
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Describe environmental reductionism
Explaining behaviour purely in terms of environmental factors.
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What is methodological reductionism?
Attempt to isolate variables in the lab to simply processes - basis of experimental method.
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What does holism refer to?
An approach/study that looks at the individual and the whole picture instead of breaking it down into components.
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What does a holistic approach suggest?
Suggests there are different levels of explanation and there are emergent properties that cannot be reduced.
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Why do holistic approaches look at the whole person?
To gain an understanding about anything that may impact on their behaviour.
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What are the strengths of holistic approaches?
Looks at everything that could impact behaviour. Considers more than 1 cause and allows for a detailed analysis.
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What are the limitations of the holistic approach?
Does not allow for detailed study into 1 area. Non-scientific and over complicates behaviour.
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Which psychological method is the most holistic?
Case study method.
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Why are case studies said to be holistic?
Studies e.g. Thigpen and Cleckley look at all the different factors that could affect the individual. Different methods of testing are used.
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What studies are reductionist?
Geer and Maisel, Raine, Gottesman and Shields.
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What studies are holistic?
Thigpen and Cleckley, Johansson.
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What perspectives are reductionist?
Cognitive, behaviourist, social.
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What perspectives are holistic?
Psychodynamic.
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Card 2

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What does it say behaviour is determined by?

Back

Determined by only 1 factor.

Card 3

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What are the strengths of reductionism?

Back

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Card 4

Front

What are the weaknesses of reductionism?

Back

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Card 5

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What are 4 types of reductionism?

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