Recombinant DNA Technology key words

  • Created by: Jones.be
  • Created on: 08-03-18 09:53
Genome
The entire set of DNA, including all the genes, in an organism.
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Proteome
All the proteins that are made by an organism.
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Pyrosequencing
An automated, large scale, cost-effective technique, which can sequence 400 million base pairs in 10 hours.
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Recombinant DNA Technology
This involves transferring a fragment of DNA from one organism to another.
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Recombinant DNA
Contains genes/ nucleotide sequences of DNA from 2 different species/ two types of organisms because the genetic code is universal.
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Transgenic organism
An organism containing recombinant DNA (the recipient), which can be transcribed and translated into desired proteins.
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Restriction enzymes/ Restriction endonuclease
Enzymes that cut DNA at specific, palindromic recognition sequences/ sites such as: GAATTC, CTTAAG
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Sticky ends
Cut ends of DNA, with one strand longer than the other/ staggered cut so bases are unpaired/exposed, that can attach to complimentary DNA bases.
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Palindromic sequence
A sequence of DNA that consists of antiparallel base pairs that read the same in opposite directions.
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DNA ligase
an enzyme which completes the DNA backbone by forming covalent phosphodiester bonds. Together with restriction enzymes, it can be used to join lengths of DNA from different sources.
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Gene machine
A piece of equipment that can synthesise DNA fragments from scratch, without having a template, by using a database of stored sequences that are already known.
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Reverse transcriptase
An enzyme produces by a retroviruses to help them invade cells, which synthesises DNA from an RNA template. In biotechnology it is used to make an 'artificial gene' called complimentary DNA (cDNA) from an mRNA template.
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Plasmid
Circular DNA which is separate from main bacterial DNA chromosome and contains only a few genes.
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Vector
A carrier of DNA / genes into another organism's (host's) cells.
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In vivo cloning
A process of copying genes in a living organism. As the organism grows and divides, it replicates the DNA, creating multiple copies of the gene.
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In vitro cloning
A process of copying genes outside of a living organism using the polymerase chain reaction.
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Primer
Short pieces of DNA that are complimentary to the bases at the start of the fragment you want.
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Anneal
This is a term used to describe the binding of nucleotides. e. g the binding of primers to the DNA strand.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

All the proteins that are made by an organism.

Back

Proteome

Card 3

Front

An automated, large scale, cost-effective technique, which can sequence 400 million base pairs in 10 hours.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

This involves transferring a fragment of DNA from one organism to another.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Contains genes/ nucleotide sequences of DNA from 2 different species/ two types of organisms because the genetic code is universal.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

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