French Wars- Reasons for British success

What are the reasons for British success in the French Wars? (9)
French mistakes and weaknesses, Wellington, economy, navy, foreign support, York's reforms, Napoleon's failings, government, and support for war
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What was the supply policy of the French Army?
Living off the land
2 of 52
Why was living off the land a failure for the French? (3)
Vulnerable to scorched earth policy, lack of centralisation caused loss of morale and discipline
3 of 52
What were the economic problems for France in the war? (5)
Lower income, weaker technology, less money for research and development, failed continental system, economy built on looting
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What caused a decline in morale in the French Army? (3)
Conscription, lack of provisions, high casualties due to columns
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What were the tactical problems for the French? (3)
Column formation, war on 2 fronts, rapid gain of territory meant hard to consolidate
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What were the impacts of the continental system? (2)
Cut Europe off from world trade, made France unpopular with captured territories
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Where was Wellington successful at using terrain? (4)
Battle of Vimeiro, Battle of Douro, Battle of Salamanca, Battle of Waterloo
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Where did Wellington gain skills?
India (Battles of Assaye and Argaum)
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Why did Wellington stay close to the coast? (2)
Supply the army, provide an escape route via the navy
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How did Wellington succeed with such a small army? (3)
Used the terrain effectively, fought in defensive formations, planned carefully
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Apart from in battle, how did Wellington use the land to his advantage? (2)
Used a scorched earth policy against the French in the Lines of Torres Vedras, made use of local supplies
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How did Wellington prepare for battles? (4)
Studied Napoleon's tactics, studied the terrain, assessed his supply lines, only fought battles he thought he could win
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How did Wellington maintain high morale?
Good supplies of weapons and food, trained men well
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How were the wars paid for?
Taxes and foreign loans
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What was the annual econnomic growth rate of Britain?
6%
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What did a strong economy mean in terms of war production? (4)
More money for machines, raw materials, workers, and research/development
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What were the names of the three boards which were given money for the war effort?
Ordnance, victualling, transport
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What was the benefit of funding the ordnance board? (2)
Better and more weapons, better and more training
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What was the benefit of funding the victualling board? (4)
More food, less disease, stronger fighters, improved morale
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What was the benefit of funding the transport board?
More wagons, horses, and supply ships for faster supply
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What was the name given to the subsidies encouraging the Allies to fight in coalitions?
The Golden Cavalry of St George
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Why were subsidies to Allies especially important for Britain
To increase the number of men
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What was the role of the navy in winning the war?
Supply, defence of colonies, defence of Britain, blockading of ports, offered an escape route, strengthened the economy by protecting merchant ships, captured French colonies for more tactical bases
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What were the impacts of poor French supply lines due to the actions of the Royal Navy?
Less money for industrial production, weaker supplies, so men were weaker and more likely to get disease
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Where was the navy successful in allowing a rapid British retreat?
Corunna
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What naval battles significantly aided the war effort?
Nile, Trafalgar
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How did the navy win Britain support from the EIC?
Protected EIC ships in return for loans and trade
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What was the role of cossacks in defeating Napoleon in Russia?
Used scorched earth policy, burned Smolensk and Moscow so Napoleon had nowhere to winter troops
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What was the significance of the invasion of Russia in bringing about defeat? (8)
War on 2 fronts, stretching supply lines, limited rations, harsh winter, poor uniforms, cossack attacks, low morale, lack of discipline
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What did Napoleon do in December 1812 which caused a further decrease in morale?
Left troops in Russia to deal with a coup
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What was the significance of horses dying in Russia?
No cavalry, no supply horses, cannons and wagons left behind
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What was the main impact of the Russian invasion on the Grand Armee?
Men died in large numbers
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What were the main roles of the Allies in helping the British? (2)
Provided men, diverted French attention
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What was the condition of the Austrian Army? (4)
Large army, experienced officers, effective use of skirmishers, but poorly trained conscripts
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What was the condition of the Russian Army? (6)
Strong artillery, huge army, willing to burn own cities, poorly trained conscripts, aristocratic recruitment, corporal punishment
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What was the condition of the Prussian Army? (6)
Abolition of serfdom and education of officers, ban on corporal punishment, conscription reformed, tactics and equipment updated, better training
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What were the main reforms by York? (6)
Reduced corporal punishment, officers had to have experience, RMC established (more meritocratic), reduced service times, beer allowances, Shorncliffe system
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Under York's reforms, how long did an officer have to serve before he could become a captain?
2 years
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Under York's reforms, how long did an officer have to serve before he could become a major?
6 years
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Under York's reforms, how long were service times for infantry?
7 years
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Under York's reforms, how long were service times for cavalry?
10 years
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What was the impact of reducing corporal punishment and reducing service times?
Encouraged more men to sign up, increased morale, increased meritocracy
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Why was Napoleon's regime fragile?
Essentially a dictatorship- built on success, so it collapsed when he failed
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What was the impact of the continental system on Napoleon?
Made him less popular in Europe, caused allies to join coalitions
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What was the biggest flaw in Napoleon's tactics?
He didn't change them, so the Allies understood how to defeat him
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What was the problem caused by column tactics?
Very high casualties
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What happened at Waterloo which led to Napoleon's downfall?
The allies grouped together quickly to defeat him
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What was the impact of the French Revolution on morale? (2)
Inspired men to fight, so increased morale, increased meritocracy
49 of 52
What were the problems created by the Reign of Terror? (2)
Fewer men to fight, inexperienced officers
50 of 52
Why was there popular support for the war?
Propaganda, fear of invasion
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How did changes to the civil service contribute to victory?
Decreased corruption, so increased efficiency and meritocracy
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What was the supply policy of the French Army?

Back

Living off the land

Card 3

Front

Why was living off the land a failure for the French? (3)

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What were the economic problems for France in the war? (5)

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What caused a decline in morale in the French Army? (3)

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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