Reaction Mechanisms

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Hemiacetal
One equivalent of alcohol with an aldehyde
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Hemiketal
One equivalent of alcohol with a ketone
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Secondary alcohol
Grignard's reagent with aldehyde (irreversible)
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Tertiary alcohol
Grignard's reagent with a ketone (irreversible)
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Imine
Primary amine with an aldehyde/ketone
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Enamine
Secondary amine with an aldehyde/ketone
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Cyanohydrin
HCN with aldehyde/ketone
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Intermediate
Discrete molecules that are at a local energy minima and it is possible to observe/detect these molecules
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Transition state
Molecules at a local energy maxima and cannot be detected/observed discretely
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SNI
Nucleophilic substitution: unimolecular, (planar) carbocation stability important, racemic mixture produced, discrete intermediate, tertiary alkyl halides
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SNII
Nucleophilic substitution: Bi-molecular, inversion of stereochemistry, high energy transition state, primary alkyl halides
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Zaitsevs rule
Rule which states the most substituted alkenes are the most stable
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Markovnikovs rule
Rule which states the hydrogen ends up attached to the carbon of the double bond that had more hydrogens to start with
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Halogenation
Electrophilic aromatic substitution using AlCl3 and Cl2
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Nitration
Electrophilic aromatic substitution using H2NO3 and H2SO4 to form a nitronium ion (O=N=O+)
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Friedel Crafts Alkylation
Alkylation of a benzene ring using AlCl3 and R-Cl
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Friedel Craft's Acylation
Electrophilic aromatic substitution using an acyl chloride and AlCl3
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Meta directors
EWG. (If there is a positive charge on an atom next to benzene ring), -NO2, -CF3, -CCl3, -NR3, -CN, aldehyde, ketone
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Ortho para directors
EDG: -OH, -OR, -O-, -NH2, -NR2, halogens, -O-C=O,
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

One equivalent of alcohol with a ketone

Back

Hemiketal

Card 3

Front

Grignard's reagent with aldehyde (irreversible)

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Grignard's reagent with a ketone (irreversible)

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Primary amine with an aldehyde/ketone

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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